WHO Normal Reference Ranges for Semen Quality

Semen analysis is the most important investigation of male subfertility. This is not a test for fertility but a guide for minimal standards of adequacy. What constitutes a ‘normal’ result has been a matter of debate, and recently the WHO normal ranges for semen parameters have changed.

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WHO Immunological Classification for Established HIV Infection

The revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV are designed to assist in clinical management of HIV, especially where there is limited laboratory capacity. Continue reading

WHO Analgesic Ladder for Pain Management

WHO treatment guides for cancer pain provide explanations of the pathophysiology of such pain, how to make adequate assessments, how to choose analgesics, and how to use the ladder. Early studies on its effectiveness demonstrated that the method proposed by the WHO offered inexpensive treatment and adequate relief for 70% to 90% of cancer patients with pain. Continue reading

WHO Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues

The World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms updated in 2008 represents a worldwide consensus on the diagnosis of these tumors and is based on the recognition of distinct diseases, using a multidisciplinary approach.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is defined as a metabolic bone disease “characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bony tissue leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk.

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WHO Classification of Mastocytosis

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