Viral Dynamics of Coronavirus (Covid-19)

A novel human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in China in December 2019. There is limited support for many of its key epidemiologic features, including the incubation period for clinical disease (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]), which has important implications for surveillance and control activities. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Internet Addiction

Behavioural addiction affects a vast number of individuals and occurs when people find themselves unable to control the frequency or amount of a previously harmless behavior such as love, sex, gambling, work, internet and chatroom usage, shopping or exercise. Behavioural addictions are considered impulse-control disorders and share many underlying similarities to substance addictions, including aspects of tolerance, withdrawal, repeated unsuccessful attempts to cut back or quit and impairment in everyday life functioning. Continue reading

Definitions and Diagnostic Criteria for Pericarditis

Pericardial syndromes include different clinical presentations of pericardial diseases with distinctive signs and symptoms that can be grouped in specific ‘syndromes’. The classical pericardial syndromes include pericarditis, pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade and constrictive pericarditis. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disorder caused by mutations in the gene for the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes an ion channel protein, with more than 2000 mutations identified to date. A diagnosis of CF initially relied on phenotype, with clinical recognition of characteristic signs and symptoms. Continue reading

Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction

The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms “impaired control” paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment. Continue reading

Implications of Placebo and Nocebo Effects

Placebo and nocebo effects are the effects of patients’ positive and negative expectations, respectively, concerning their state of health. These effects occur in many clinical contexts, including treatment with an active agent or a placebo in clinical practice or in a clinical trial, the informed consent process, the provision of information about medical treatments, and public health campaigns. Placebo effects cause beneficial outcomes, and nocebo effects cause harmful and dangerous outcomes.
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