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Guidelines for Intervention in Patients with Chronic Severe Secondary Mitral Regurgitation

International practice guidelines for the care of patients with valvular heart disease were most recently updated in 2017, before the publication of the results of the COAPT and MITRA-FR trials in 2018, and these guidelines were conservative in their recommendations regarding surgery for secondary mitral regurgitation. Continue reading “Guidelines for Intervention in Patients with Chronic Severe Secondary Mitral Regurgitation”

Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS)

Chronic rhinosinusitis is defined by the presence of at least two out of four cardinal symptoms (i.e., facial pain/pressure, hyposmia/anosmia, nasal drainage, and nasal obstruction) for at least 12 consecutive weeks, in addition to objective evidence. Objective evidence of chronic rhinosinusitis may be obtained on physical examination (anterior rhinoscopy, endoscopy) or radiography, preferably from sinus computed tomography. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS)”

Diagnostic Criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease characterized by chronic, profound, disabling, and unexplained fatigue. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)”

Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

Nasal polyps are benign inflammatory masses, arising from the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses. They are considered to be a subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis, and clinical diagnosis is made on the basis of the presence of sinonasal symptoms for more than 3 months and the visualization of polyps in the nasal cavity. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps”

Chronic Adaptations to Physical Training (PT)

Long-term responses that develop over a period of time (usually a minimum of 6 weeks) when training is repeated regularly are referred to as chronic adaptations to training. The combined effect of all chronic adaptations is known as the training effect.
Chronic adaptations to training may occur in the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems. The result of these physiological adaptations is an improvement in performance. Continue reading “Chronic Adaptations to Physical Training (PT)”

Classifications of Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease

Recently developed consensus functional definitions on the basis of specific changes in the serum creatinine concentration and urine volume now complement anatomical approaches to diagnosis.
Continue reading “Classifications of Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease”

Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic HBV Infection

Chronic HBV infection is a necroinflammatory disease of the liver caused by persistent infection with HBV, and can be categorized as hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive or negative. Inactive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers have HBV infection of the liver without significant, ongoing necroinflammatory disease. HBV infection is resolved when there is no further virologic, biochemical, or histologic evidence of active viral infection or disease.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic HBV Infection”

Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

Classic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is characterized by the occurrence of symmetrical weakness in both proximal and distal muscles that progressively increases for more than two months (setting this condition apart from the Guillain–Barré syndrome, which is self-limited). The condition is associated with impaired sensation, absent or diminished tendon reflexes, an elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein level, demyelinating nerve-conduction studies, and signs of demyelination in nerve-biopsy specimens. The course can be relapsing or chronic and progressive, the former being much more common in young adults.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)”

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