Opioid analgesics (termed opioids in this report) are a class of drugs commonly prescribed to treat moderate to severe pain. Opioids include drugs available by prescription such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, morphine, and fentanyl. Opioids also include illicit substances such as heroin and fentanyl. Although often prescribed to control pain, opioids may also produce feelings of euphoria and sedation which may lead to misuse of opioids resulting in opioid use disorder. Continue reading “DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Opioid Use Disorder”
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by psychotic symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech, by negative symptoms such as decreased motivation and diminished expressiveness, and by cognitive deficits involving impaired executive functions, memory, and speed of mental processing. Continue reading “DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenia”
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine defines insomnia as the subjective perception of difficulty with sleep initiation, duration, consolidation, or quality that occurs despite adequate opportunity for sleep, and that results in some form of daytime impairment.
Continue reading “DSM-V Diagnostic Criteria for Insomnia”
Delirium is also known as acute confusional state, altered mental status, and toxic metabolic encephalopathy, among more than 30 descriptive terms. Delirium can be thought of as acute brain failure and is the final common pathway of multiple mechanisms, similar to acute heart failure. The official definition of delirium in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), requires a disturbance in attention and awareness that develops acutely and tends to fluctuate. The pathophysiological mechanisms of delirium remain poorly understood; leading models include neurotransmitter imbalance and neuroinflammation.
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition of persistent mental and emotional stress occurring as a result of injury or severe psychological shock, typically involving disturbance of sleep and constant vivid recall of the experience, with dulled responses to others and to the outside world.
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Social anxiety is the fear of interaction with other people that brings on self-consciousness, feelings of being negatively judged and evaluated, and, as a result, leads to avoidance.
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Narcolepsy is characterized by permanent, overwhelming feelings of sleepiness and fatigue. Other symptoms include abnormalities of dreaming sleep, such as dream-like hallucinations and feeling physically weak or paralyzed for a few seconds. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Narcolepsy (DSM-IV-TR)”
The American Psychiatric Association has just published the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder has been modified based on the research literature and clinical experience.
Continue reading “DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)”
The criteria for withdrawal delirium, are delirium (a rapid-onset fluctuating disturbance of attention and cognition, sometimes with hallucinations) plus alcohol withdrawal.
Continue reading “DSM-5 Criteria for Withdrawal Delirium (Delirium Tremens)”
The diagnostic criteria for major depression in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), require the presence of either sadness or anhedonia with a total of five or more symptoms over a 2-week period.
Continue reading “DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder”