Caustic substances injure tissue by means of a chemical reaction on direct physical contact. Often thought of as acids or bases, caustics broadly include desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The term “corrosive” is often used interchangeably with “caustic,” but corrosion implies a mechanical degradation, which does not always apply to caustics. Continue reading “Classification of Caustic-Induced Gastrointestinal Injuries”
Primary, secondary, and tertiary preventive measures may reduce the incidence and severity of sensitizer-induced asthma.
Continue reading “Prevention of Sensitizer-Induced Occupational Asthma”
Irritant-induced occupational asthma is a term used to describe occupational asthma that occurs from exposure to agents considered to be airway irritants, in the absence of sensitization.
Continue reading “Criteria for the Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS)”
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is defined as the impairment of renal function and is measured as either a 25% increase in serum creatinine (SCr) from baseline or 0.5 mg/dL (44 umol/L) increase in absolute value, within 48-72 hours of intravenous contrast administration. Continue reading “Risk Factors for Contrast-Induced Nephropathy (CIN)”
Diagnostic Criteria for Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)
- Heparin exposure >5 days
- Relative thrombocytopenia: decrease in platelet count by 50% from baseline OR absolute thrombocytopenia: decrease in platelet count to less than 100 to 150 x 109/L
- Absence of other causes of thrombocytopenia
- Development of new thrombosis, or extension of pre-existing thrombosis, while receiving heparin therapy
- Confirmation by laboratory testing
- Return to normal platelet count when heparin is discontinued Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)”
The clinical diagnosis of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (APT) requires two or more of the following criteria:
- new onset of pulmonary symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, or pleuritic chest pain;
- new chest radiographic abnormality such as an interstitial or alveolar infiltrate;
- a decrease in the DLCO of 20% from the pretreatment value, or if none is available, a value less than 80% of predicted;
- abnormal lung uptake with gallium-67 radioisotope; and
- characteristic histologic changes of lung tissue obtained by bronchoscopic or open lung biopsy.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Amiodarone-Induced Pulmonary Toxicity (APT)”