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Surveillance Case Definitions for Human Infection with Novel Coronavirus (Covid-19)

Reported symptoms have included fever in 90% of cases, fatigue and a dry cough in 80%, and shortness of breath in 20%, with respiratory distress in 15%. Chest x-rays have revealed signs in both lungs. Vital signs were generally stable at the time of admission of those hospitalised. Blood tests have commonly shown low white blood cell counts (leucopenia and lymphopenia). Continue reading “Surveillance Case Definitions for Human Infection with Novel Coronavirus (Covid-19)”

Indications for Testing for Helicobacter pylori Infection

Testing for H. pylori is recommended in patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, or gastric mucosa–associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma). Other recommended indications for testing include dyspepsia, prolonged use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs or aspirin, unexplained iron-deficiency anemia, and immune thrombocytopenia. Continue reading “Indications for Testing for Helicobacter pylori Infection”

Revised Surveillance Case Definition for HIV Infection

Since the first cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in the United States in 1981, surveillance case definitions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (the cause of AIDS) and AIDS have undergone several revisions to respond to diagnostic advances. Continue reading “Revised Surveillance Case Definition for HIV Infection”

WHO Immunological Classification for Established HIV Infection

The revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV are designed to assist in clinical management of HIV, especially where there is limited laboratory capacity. Continue reading “WHO Immunological Classification for Established HIV Infection”

Helicobacter pylori Infection in Peptic Ulcer Disease

Endoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease. Apart from  exclusion of malignant disease, detection of H pylori infection with histology or rapid urease tests is essential to the subsequent treatment plan.  Continue reading “Helicobacter pylori Infection in Peptic Ulcer Disease”

Severity Criteria for Clostridium difficile Infection

Patients with severe disease may develop a colonic ileus or toxic dilatation and present with abdominal pain and distension but with minimal or no diarrhea. Complications of severe C. difficile colitis include dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, hypoalbuminemia, toxic megacolon, bowel perforation, hypotension, renal failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, and death.

Definitions of Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI)

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a Gram-positive, sporeforming bacterium usually spread by the fecal-oral route. It is non-invasive and produces toxins A and B that cause disease, ranging from asymptomatic carriage, to mild diarrhea, to colitis, or pseudomembranous colitis. CDI is defined as the acute onset of diarrhea with documented toxigenic C. difficile or its toxin and no other documented cause for diarrhea.
Continue reading “Definitions of Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI)”

Symptoms and Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infection

Zika virus is spread to people through mosquito bites. The most common symptoms of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting from several days to a week. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon.
Continue reading “Symptoms and Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infection”

Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic HBV Infection

Chronic HBV infection is a necroinflammatory disease of the liver caused by persistent infection with HBV, and can be categorized as hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive or negative. Inactive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers have HBV infection of the liver without significant, ongoing necroinflammatory disease. HBV infection is resolved when there is no further virologic, biochemical, or histologic evidence of active viral infection or disease.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic HBV Infection”

Typical Serologic Course of Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Infection

Since both clinically and biochemically, acute hepatitis due to HAV cannot be distinguished from that due to the other hepatitis viruses, serologic tests are necessary for a virus-specific diagnosis.
Continue reading “Typical Serologic Course of Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Infection”

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