In major depression, the person’s mood is described as depressed, sad, hopeless, discouraged, or “down in the dumps”.
Diagnostic Criteria for Major Depression (American Psychiatric Association)
- Period of at least 2 wk during which five or more symptoms have been present (at least one of the symptoms is either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities).
- Changes in appetite or decrease or increase in weight, insomnia or hypersomnia, and psychomotor agitation or retardation; decreased energy; feelings of worthlessness or guilt; difficulty in thinking, concentrating, or making decisions; recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation, plans, or attempts.
- Symptoms are either new or worse than before the depressive episode, and they persist for most of the day, nearly every day, for at least 2 consecutive wk.
- Episode accompanied by clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
- Symptoms are not due to bereavement or to direct physiological effect of medication, general medical condition, or substance abuse
- Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed. rev.: DSM-IV-R. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
- Frye MA. Clinical practice. Bipolar disorder–a focus on depression. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jan 6;364(1):51-9. [Medline]
Created: Jan 12, 2011.