The Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited syndrome associated with colorectal cancer, accounting for 3% of new diagnoses; it is also associated with extracolonic cancers, the most common of which is endometrial cancer.
The Lynch syndrome phenotype includes a propensity for cancers of the proximal colon, poor tumor differentiation with mucinous or signet-ring cell histologic features or a medullary growth pattern, abundant infiltrating lymphocytes in the tumor, and synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancers. Continue reading “Guidelines for Diagnosis of the Lynch Syndrome”
Patients with testicular cancer most frequently present with a painless testicular mass. The initial work-up includes a history and physical exam, cross-sectional imaging of the retroperitoneum, chest x-ray, and serum levels of AFP, hCG, and LDH. Continue reading “Biochemical Markers in Testicular Cancer”
This scale and criteria are used by physicians and researchers to assess how a patient’s disease is progressing, assess how the disease affects the daily living abilities of the patient, and determine appropriate treatment and prognosis.
Continue reading “ECOG Performance Status”
Tumor markers are playing an increasingly important role in cancer detection and management. These laboratory-based tests are potentially useful in screening for early malignancy, aiding cancer diagnosis, determining prognosis, surveillance following curative surgery for cancer, up front predicting drug response or resistance, and monitoring therapy in advanced disease.
Continue reading “Tumor Markers in Clinical Practice”
Risk assessment tools can incorporate multiple variables to identify patients or subpopulations at risk for events. A recently developed risk score can identify cancer patients at high risk for VTE using a combination of easily available clinical and laboratory variables.
Continue reading “Modified Khorana Risk Score for Prediction of Venous Thromboembolic Events (VTE) in Patients with Cancer”
The Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPS) was designed to measure the level of patient activity and medical care requirements. It is a general measure of patient independence and has been widely used as a general assessment of patient with cancer.
Continue reading “Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) Scale”
The rationale for screening is that early detection and treatment of asymptomatic cancers could extend life, as compared with treatment at the time of clinical diagnosis. The introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has nearly doubled the lifetime risk of receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Continue reading “Prostate-Cancer Screening Guidelines”
Anaemia is a frequent finding in cancer patients and should be carefully assessed. Additional causes of anaemia such as iron deficiency, bleeding, nutritional defects or haemolysis should be corrected prior to erythropoietic protein therapy. The following recommendations are related to adult cancer patients with solid tumours or haematological malignancies:
Continue reading “Guidelines for the Use of Erythropoietic Proteins in Anaemic Patients with Cancer”
The tumor lysis syndrome is the most common disease-related emergency encountered by physicians caring for children or adults with hematologic cancers. This syndrome occurs when tumor cells release their contents into the bloodstream, either spontaneously or in response to therapy, leading to the characteristic findings of hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. These electrolyte and metabolic disturbances can progress to clinical toxic effects, including renal insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death due to multiorgan failure.
Continue reading “Definitions of Laboratory and Clinical Tumor Lysis Syndrome”
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is defined as a carcinoma deriving from the follicular epithelium and retaining basic biological characteristics of healthy thyroid tissue, including expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), the key cellular feature for specific iodine uptake.
Continue reading “Indications and Contraindications Radioiodine Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC)”