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Diagnostic Criteria of Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

The Endocrine Society guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of Acute Adrenal Insufficiency (AAI) defines an adrenal crisis as a medical emergency with hypotension, abdominal symptoms and laboratory abnormalities requiring emergency treatment.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Peripartum Cardiomyopathy

Typically, peripartum cardiomyopathy occurs in the first 4 months postpartum; fewer than 10% of cases occur prepartum. Common symptoms include dyspnea, cough, orthopnea, hemoptysis, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. Most affected patients have New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV function. Additional symptoms include nonspecific fatigue, malaise, palpitations, chest and abdominal discomfort, and postural hypotension. Diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion, because symptoms of peripartum cardiomyopathy can be confused with physiologic changes associated with advanced pregnancy. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Peripartum Cardiomyopathy”

Diagnostic Criteria for Cannabis Use Disorder

Cannabis use induces a variety of acute psychological and physiological effects that vary in intensity and duration according to the dose, the route of administration, and the degree of tolerance in the user. Acute psychological effects include euphoria (“high”), relaxation, and sedation (usually desired by persons who use cannabis recreationally), increased appetite (“munchies”) and impaired short-term memory, concentration, and psychomotor coordination. Some people experience increased anxiety, panic attacks, or paranoia, especially at higher doses. Psychotic symptoms, such as perceptual alterations, hallucinations, and delusions, are less common. Acute physical effects include impaired motor coordination, slurred speech, dry mouth, conjunctival injection (“red eye”), tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, and horizontal nystagmus. Smoked cannabis induces cough, wheezing, and dyspnea; increases sputum production; and exacerbates asthma. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Cannabis Use Disorder”

Diagnostic Criteria for Catatonia

Catatonia has a complex presentation that is composed of multiple signs and symptoms, of which only three need to be present for diagnosis. It may be thought of as occurring with schizophrenia or with mania; however, patients in other settings with various general medical health conditions may develop an episode of catatonia. It is essential to identify catatonia early on for treatment to protect the patient from developing any further complications. A number of medical conditions can mask catatonia, delaying its treatment.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHS) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS)

Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an immunopathologic disease; dengue virus–antibody immune complexes trigger release of vasoactive mediators by macrophages. The mediators increase vascular permeability, causing vascular leakage, hemorrhagic manifestations, hemoconcentration, and serous effusions, which can lead to circulatory collapse (ie, dengue shock syndrome). Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHS) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS)”

Diagnosis of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES)

The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological disorder of (sub)acute onset characterized by varied neurological symptoms, which may include headache, impaired visual acuity or visual field deficits, disorders of consciousness, confusion, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. Continue reading “Diagnosis of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES)”

Diagnosis and Initial Evaluation of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency (POI)

Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), by definition, occurs when a woman has her last menstrual period before the age of 40, because of variable, and most often permanent ovarian dysfunction. It presents as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism with peripheral amenorrhea. It has a prevalence of 1-2%, but in women under 20 years its prevalence is one case in every 10,000 women. POI is a devastating diagnosis for women of reproductive age. Many conditions can lead to POI, but it is most commonly idiopathic, and it has a variable clinical presentation. It has serious health consequences, including psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, infertility, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and an increased risk of mortality. Continue reading “Diagnosis and Initial Evaluation of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency (POI)”

IMWG Diagnostic Criteria for Multiple Myeloma and Related Plasma Cell Disorders

Plasma cell neoplasms including multiple myeloma (MM) and related terminally differentiated B-cell neoplasms are characterized by secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulin and stepwise development from a preneoplastic clonal B and/or plasma cell proliferation called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Diagnosis of these disorders requires integration of clinical, laboratory, and morphological features. Continue reading “IMWG Diagnostic Criteria for Multiple Myeloma and Related Plasma Cell Disorders”

Diagnostic Criteria of Periprosthetic Joint Infection (PJI)

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious and potentially devastating complication that can occur after joint replacement surgery, such as hip or knee replacement. It refers to the presence of an infection in or around the artificial joint (prosthesis) that has been implanted during the surgical procedure.
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