Fracture-related infection (FRI) is a severe complication following bone injury and can pose a diagnostic challenge. There is a spectrum of clinical presentations of FRI and differentiating them from noninfected causes can be difficult. In the early postoperative period, classical clinical symptoms of infection, such as pain, redness, warmth, or swelling, overlap with features of normal fracture healing. Later, more subtle clinical presentations such as fracture nonunion or persistent pain can be attributable to both infective and noninfective conditions. The complexity and variety of FRI may have hindered the establishment of uniform diagnostic criteria.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Fracture-Related Infection (FRI)”
The gold standard for diagnosing acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients is tissue biopsy. Indications to pursue graft biopsy over concern for acute rejection include either an acute, otherwise unexplained deterioration in graft function or the presence of a biomarker consistent with acute rejection. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria of Acute Rejection in Kidney Transplants”
West syndrome is characterized by a specific type of seizure ( infantile spasms) and developmental regression.
The gold standard method of diagnosing infantile spasms is to capture them on video-EEG to confirm the ictal correlate of the seizure. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Infantile Spasms and West Syndrome”
These new insights into the heterogeneous genetic mutations and phenotypic manifestations of ACM led to a critical revision of the 2010 ITF criteria, which exclusively targeted RV classical forms and did not include the tissue characterization by contrast enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Accordingly, an International Expert consensus document has been recently developed to provide upgraded criteria (“the Padua Criteria”) for the diagnosis of the whole spectrum of ACM phenotypes. Continue reading “New Diagnostic Criteria for Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy”
Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is a rare and life-threatening autoimmune bullous disease that classically occurs in the setting of an underlying neoplasm. PNP is also known as paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome (PAMS) because of its varied mucocutaneous and systemic deleterious effects. Due to the variable disease characteristics and lack of formally accepted diagnostic criteria, PNP remains a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Continue reading “Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Paraneoplastic Pemphigus (PNP)”
The clinician must investigate and corroborate key features of the history that help to better characterize seizures while distinguishing epileptic seizures from nonepileptic events. The most common nonepileptic paroxysmal events during childhood and adolescence are syncope, psychogenic nonepileptic events (PNES), pallid and cyanotic breath holding spells, reflux/Sandifer syndrome, self-gratification disorders, and paroxysmal nonepileptic motor disorders of sleep among others. Continue reading “Clinical Aspects of the Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures”
Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) syndrome describes the simultaneous deterioration of bone, muscle and excess fat, resulting in reduced functionality and systemic metabolic dysregulation. The key component contributing to this may be ectopic fat in the viscera, bone and muscle. Continue reading “Revised Physical Diagnostic Criteria for Osteosarcopenic Obesity (OSO)”
Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) (previously hyperplastic polyposis) is defined by number and size of serrated polyps in the colon and rectum, but the definition is purely arbitrary and there is no known genotype.
SPS is associated with a high risk of colorectal cancer, not only in the affected patient, but also family members. The carcinogenesis can be rapid, with several series describing interval cancers occurring quickly. Continue reading “WHO Criteria for Diagnosis of Serrated Polyposis Syndrome (SPS)”
Gas, bloating, and belching are associated with a variety of conditions but are most commonly caused by functional gastrointestinal disorders. These disorders are characterized by disordered motility and visceral hypersensitivity that are often worsened by psychological distress. Continue reading “Rome IV Diagnostic Criteria for Belching Disorders”
Nausea is a subjective symptom and can be defined as an unpleasant sensation of the imminent need to vomit, typically experienced in the epigastrium or throat. Vomiting refers to the forceful oral expulsion of gastrointestinal contents associated with contraction of the abdominal and chest wall muscles. Continue reading “Rome IV Diagnostic Criteria for Nausea and Vomiting Disorders”