Cachexia in RA (rheumatoid cachexia, RC), is mainly characterized by loss of muscle mass, in particular appendicular lean mass (ALM), and associated with accumulated fat mass (FM), situated mainly in the trunk area, indicating a shift towards the development of abdominal obesity. The loss of body cell mass (BCM) consists of an important issue of concern for patients with RA. BCM consists primarily of muscle and visceral mass (erythrocytes, serum proteins, lymphocytes, etc.), and is the part of the body with the greatest metabolic activity (95% of the total activity), determining protein requirements, energy expenditure, and the metabolic response to stress.
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Cachexia, is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. The prominent clinical feature of cachexia is weight loss in adults (corrected for fluid retention) or growth failure in children (excluding endocrine disorders). Anorexia, inflammation, insulin resistance and increased muscle protein breakdown are frequently associated with wasting disease. Wasting disease is distinct from starvation, age-related loss of muscle mass, primary depression, malabsorption and hyperthyroidism and is associated with increased morbidity. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Wasting Disease (Cachexia) in Adults”
Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. It is accompanied by increased osmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria of Dry Eye Disease”
Orthorexia nervosa describes a pathological obsession with proper nutrition that is characterized by a restrictive diet, ritualized patterns of eating, and rigid avoidance of foods believed to be unhealthy or impure. Although prompted by a desire to achieve optimum health, orthorexia may lead to nutritional deficiencies, medical complications, and poor quality of life. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Orthorexia”
After nerve injury, disorganized or incomplete nerve regeneration may result in a neuroma. The true incidence of symptomatic neuroma is unknown, and the diagnosis has traditionally been made based on patient history, symptoms, physical examination, and the anatomic location of pain, along with response to diagnostic injection. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Symptomatic Neuroma”
Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) is a debilitating disease that classically presents with recurrent bouts of acute pancreatitis, chronic abdominal pain as well as evidence of end organ damage. This is a result of extensive fibrosis and inflammation within the gland that eventually leads to both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Pancreatitis”
Compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) is currently defined as an impulse control disorder and “characterized by a persistent pattern of failure to control intense, repetitive sexual urges and behaviors” where an individual (1) devotes excessive time to sexual activities to the point of neglecting health, personal care, interests, and responsibilities, (2) experiences diminished control manifest by multiple unsuccessful efforts to reduce sexual behavior, (3) continues sexual activity despite adverse consequences, (4) continues engagement in sexual behavior even when little or no satisfaction is derived, and (5) experiences significant distress or impairment across life domains or important areas of functioning. The classification also cautions, “Distress that is entirely related to moral judgments and disapproval about sexual impulses, urges, or behaviors is not sufficient to meet this requirement.” Additionally, paraphilic disorders are exclusionary. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD)”
Atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia (aCML), BCR/ABL1 negative is a rare disorder classified into the category of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN), according to the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. It is, by definition, a BCR-ABL1-negative clonal disorder sharing myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative features. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria of Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (aCML)”
Regular exercising has many health benefits and is rightly seen as positive, socially acceptable behavior. However, for the same reason, there is a high risk that patients and clinicians may overlook the danger of exercise addiction that causes harm in the somatic, emotional and interpersonal spheres. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Addiction to Physical Exercises”
Fracture-related infection (FRI) is a severe complication following bone injury and can pose a diagnostic challenge. There is a spectrum of clinical presentations of FRI and differentiating them from noninfected causes can be difficult. In the early postoperative period, classical clinical symptoms of infection, such as pain, redness, warmth, or swelling, overlap with features of normal fracture healing. Later, more subtle clinical presentations such as fracture nonunion or persistent pain can be attributable to both infective and noninfective conditions. The complexity and variety of FRI may have hindered the establishment of uniform diagnostic criteria.
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