Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), by definition, occurs when a woman has her last menstrual period before the age of 40, because of variable, and most often permanent ovarian dysfunction. It presents as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism with peripheral amenorrhea. It has a prevalence of 1-2%, but in women under 20 years its prevalence is one case in every 10,000 women. POI is a devastating diagnosis for women of reproductive age. Many conditions can lead to POI, but it is most commonly idiopathic, and it has a variable clinical presentation. It has serious health consequences, including psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, infertility, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and an increased risk of mortality. Continue reading “Diagnosis and Initial Evaluation of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency (POI)”
Plasma cell neoplasms including multiple myeloma (MM) and related terminally differentiated B-cell neoplasms are characterized by secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulin and stepwise development from a preneoplastic clonal B and/or plasma cell proliferation called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Diagnosis of these disorders requires integration of clinical, laboratory, and morphological features. Continue reading “IMWG Diagnostic Criteria for Multiple Myeloma and Related Plasma Cell Disorders”
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious and potentially devastating complication that can occur after joint replacement surgery, such as hip or knee replacement. It refers to the presence of an infection in or around the artificial joint (prosthesis) that has been implanted during the surgical procedure.
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The diagnostic criteria for ABPA include a history of asthma, evidence of Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) IgE sensitisation on blood and/or skin tests, elevated total IgE levels and eosinophil counts, detection of Aspergillus precipitins or IgG, isolation of A. fumigatus in sputum cultures, presence of pulmonary infiltrates on chest x rays and distribution of bronchiectasis on CT chest scans. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA)”
Cachexia in RA (rheumatoid cachexia, RC), is mainly characterized by loss of muscle mass, in particular appendicular lean mass (ALM), and associated with accumulated fat mass (FM), situated mainly in the trunk area, indicating a shift towards the development of abdominal obesity. The loss of body cell mass (BCM) consists of an important issue of concern for patients with RA. BCM consists primarily of muscle and visceral mass (erythrocytes, serum proteins, lymphocytes, etc.), and is the part of the body with the greatest metabolic activity (95% of the total activity), determining protein requirements, energy expenditure, and the metabolic response to stress.
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Cachexia, is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. The prominent clinical feature of cachexia is weight loss in adults (corrected for fluid retention) or growth failure in children (excluding endocrine disorders). Anorexia, inflammation, insulin resistance and increased muscle protein breakdown are frequently associated with wasting disease. Wasting disease is distinct from starvation, age-related loss of muscle mass, primary depression, malabsorption and hyperthyroidism and is associated with increased morbidity. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Wasting Disease (Cachexia) in Adults”
Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. It is accompanied by increased osmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria of Dry Eye Disease”
Orthorexia nervosa describes a pathological obsession with proper nutrition that is characterized by a restrictive diet, ritualized patterns of eating, and rigid avoidance of foods believed to be unhealthy or impure. Although prompted by a desire to achieve optimum health, orthorexia may lead to nutritional deficiencies, medical complications, and poor quality of life. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Orthorexia”
After nerve injury, disorganized or incomplete nerve regeneration may result in a neuroma. The true incidence of symptomatic neuroma is unknown, and the diagnosis has traditionally been made based on patient history, symptoms, physical examination, and the anatomic location of pain, along with response to diagnostic injection. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Symptomatic Neuroma”
Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) is a debilitating disease that classically presents with recurrent bouts of acute pancreatitis, chronic abdominal pain as well as evidence of end organ damage. This is a result of extensive fibrosis and inflammation within the gland that eventually leads to both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Pancreatitis”