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Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL)

Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare, often aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) defined by persistent mature neutrophilic leukocytosis, bone marrow granulocyte hyperplasia, and frequent hepatosplenomegaly. The seminal discovery of oncogenic driver mutations in colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) in the majority of patients with CNL in 2013 anchored a new scientific framework, deepening our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, providing a diagnostic biomarker, and rationalizing the use of pharmacological targeting. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL)”

Diagnostic Criteria for Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also called extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a respiratory syndrome involving the lung parenchyma and specifically the alveoli, terminal bronchioli, and alveolar interstitium, due to a delayed allergic reaction. Such reaction is secondary to a repeated and prolonged inhalation of different types of organic dusts or other substances to which the patient is sensitized and hyper responsive, primarily consisting of organic dusts of animal or vegetable origin, more rarely from chemicals. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis”

ACR Revised Criteria for Early Diagnosis of Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is cartilage failure resulting in joint pain and loss of joint functions. Knee OA is the OA of knee that mechanical forces have major effect on initiation and progression of it. Knee OA is the most common disease of knee especially in the middle to old ages. The most common findings in the history and physical examination of the patients with knee OA are mechanical knee pain, gelling knee pain, crepitus on knee motion, bony tenderness and bony enlargement in the joint line. During the flare up of Osteoarthritis, knee can show swelling due to joint effusion called “Hydrarthrosis” that is a mechanical type of synovial fluid. Continue reading “ACR Revised Criteria for Early Diagnosis of Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)”

Clinical Diagnostic Criteria of IgG4-Related Sclerosing Cholangitis (IgG4-SC)

Sclerosing cholangitis (SC) is defined as a condition with progressive stenosis and destruction of the bile ducts due to diffuse inflammation and fibrosis and currently includes three categories: primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), secondary cholangitis, and IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC). SC categories share similar clinical features, such as cholestasis. Patients with SC present with cholestatic symptoms, including jaundice and pruritus, and blood tests reveal elevation of cholestatic enzymes. Continue reading “Clinical Diagnostic Criteria of IgG4-Related Sclerosing Cholangitis (IgG4-SC)”

Diagnostic Criteria for IgG4-Related Kidney Disease (IgG4-RKD)

IgG4-related disease is characterized by a high level of serum IgG4 and dense infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into multiple organs, with the kidney being one representative target. Although several sets of diagnostic criteria for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) are available and renal lesion is recognized as an extrapancreatic manifestation of AIP, it is difficult to differentiate IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) without
AIP from other types of TIN. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for IgG4-Related Kidney Disease (IgG4-RKD)”

International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Pancreatitis (AIP)

Autoimmune pancreatitis is a distinct form of pancreatitis characterized clinically by frequent presentation with obstructive jaundice with or without a pancreatic mass, histologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and fibrosis and therapeutically by a dramatic response to steroids. Continue reading “International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Pancreatitis (AIP)”

Diagnosis of Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD)

Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a new concept proposed in 2020. Unlike non-alcoholic fatter liver disease (NAFLD), the diagnosis of MAFLD requires the presence any of the following 3 metabolic risks, including overweight/obesity, presence of diabetes mellitus, and evidence of metabolic dysregulation. Continue reading “Diagnosis of Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD)”

Diagnostic Criteria for Myeloid Neoplasms with Myelodysplasia

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are myeloid neoplasms characterized by clonal proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells, recurrent genetic abnormalities, myelodysplasia, ineffective hematopoiesis, peripheral-blood cytopenia, and a high risk of evolution to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Myeloid Neoplasms with Myelodysplasia”

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