Classification Criteria for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE)

No universally recognized classification criteria currently exist for discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), which has led to problematic heterogeneity in observational and interventional clinical studies across the field. Continue reading

Principles and Techniques of Blood Pressure Measurement

The accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) is essential for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Regardless of who is measuring BP or the method used (eg, auscultatory or oscillometric), the accuracy of the BP readings relies on standardized techniques and appropriate observer training.  Continue reading

Case Definition for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly identified pathogen and it is assumed there is no pre-existing human immunity to the virus. Initial seroconversion, including neutralizing antibodies, has been documented and there is some evidence that immunity to SARS-CoV-2 re-challenge during early convalescence is likely. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

A diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) requires the patient’s plasma glucose concentration to be above 250 mg per dL (although it usually is much higher), the pH level to be less than 7.30, and the bicarbonate level to be 18 mEq per L or less. Continue reading

Killip-Kimball Classification for Acute Myocardial Infarction

The classification or index of heart failure severity in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was proposed by Killip and Kimball aiming at assessing the risk of in-hospital death and the potential benefit of specific management of care provided in Coronary Care Units (CCU). Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual disorders consist of psychiatric or somatic symptoms that develop within the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, affect the patient’s normal daily functioning, and resolve shortly after menstruation. The luteal phase begins after ovulation and ends with the start of menstruation. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) includes psychiatric and physical symptoms in describing premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

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Diagnostic Criteria for Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH)

The clinical diagnosis of FH is founded on personal and family history, physical examination, and lipid concentrations. Three groups have developed clinical diagnostic tools for FH: the US MedPed Program, the Simon Broome Register Group in the United Kingdom, and the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network. Continue reading