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Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People with SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines

The people are considered fully vaccinated for COVID-19 ≥2 weeks after they have received the second dose in a 2-dose series (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna), or ≥2 weeks after they have received a single-dose vaccine (Johnson and Johnson (J&J)/Janssen). Continue reading “Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People with SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines”

Case Definition for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly identified pathogen and it is assumed there is no pre-existing human immunity to the virus. Initial seroconversion, including neutralizing antibodies, has been documented and there is some evidence that immunity to SARS-CoV-2 re-challenge during early convalescence is likely. Continue reading “Case Definition for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)”

Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3)

These updated definitions and clinical criteria should replace previous definitions, offer greater consistency for epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, and facilitate earlier recognition and more timely management of patients with sepsis or at risk of developing sepsis. Continue reading “Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3)”

Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS)

Chronic rhinosinusitis is defined by the presence of at least two out of four cardinal symptoms (i.e., facial pain/pressure, hyposmia/anosmia, nasal drainage, and nasal obstruction) for at least 12 consecutive weeks, in addition to objective evidence. Objective evidence of chronic rhinosinusitis may be obtained on physical examination (anterior rhinoscopy, endoscopy) or radiography, preferably from sinus computed tomography. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS)”

Viral Dynamics of Coronavirus (Covid-19)

A novel human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in China in December 2019. There is limited support for many of its key epidemiologic features, including the incubation period for clinical disease (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]), which has important implications for surveillance and control activities. Continue reading “Viral Dynamics of Coronavirus (Covid-19)”

Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19)

During the initial phase of the Covid-19 outbreak, the diagnosis of the disease was complicated by the diversity in symptoms and imaging findings and in the severity of disease at the time of presentation. Continue reading “Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19)”

Surveillance Case Definitions for Human Infection with Novel Coronavirus (Covid-19)

Reported symptoms have included fever in 90% of cases, fatigue and a dry cough in 80%, and shortness of breath in 20%, with respiratory distress in 15%. Chest x-rays have revealed signs in both lungs. Vital signs were generally stable at the time of admission of those hospitalised. Blood tests have commonly shown low white blood cell counts (leucopenia and lymphopenia). Continue reading “Surveillance Case Definitions for Human Infection with Novel Coronavirus (Covid-19)”

Features of Congenital Zika Syndrome

The majority (50 to 80%) of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic ZIKV infection has an incubation period of 3 to 14 days and is a mild illness, with a duration of up to 1 week, that manifests as a rash, low-grade fever, arthralgia and myalgia, and conjunctivitis. Complications are infrequent, but when they occur, they are severe and may be fatal. Continue reading “Features of Congenital Zika Syndrome”

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