For the WHO caries assessment system, the examiner recorded a surface as decayed only if it presented with detectably softened floor, undermined enamel or a softened wall. According to this criterion, all the stages that precede cavitation as well as other conditions similar to the early stages of a carious lesion were considered sound.
For the ICDAS system, the D stands for detection of dental caries by (i) stage of the carious process; (ii) topography (pit and fissure or smooth surfaces); (iii) anatomy (crown vs roots); and (iv) restoration or sealant status. The A in the ICDAS stands for assessment of the carious process by the stage (non-cavitated or cavitated) and activity (active or arrested). This study does not include an assessment of the lesion activity or root caries.
Continue reading “Caries Detection with ICDAS and the WHO Criteria”
Evaluation and management of Covid-19 depend on the severity of the disease. Patients with mild disease usually recover at home, whereas patients with moderate disease should be monitored closely and sometimes hospitalized.
Continue reading “Characteristics and Management of Covid-19 According to Disease Severity”
The criteria that define infections for surveillance purposes were selected to increase the likelihood that the events captured by application of the definitions are true infections. Presentations of infection in older residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs), may be atypical, so failure to meet surveillance definitions may not fully exclude the presence of infection. For this reason, the surveillance definitions presented here may not be adequate for real-time case finding, diagnosis, or clinical decision making (eg, antibiotic initiation). Separate clinical guidelines address early identification of infections and appropriate initiation of antibiotic therapy in LTCF residents, which are both important for impacting resident outcomes. Continue reading “Revised McGeer Criteria for Respiratory Tract Infection Surveillance (RTIs)”
The definitions for UTI presented here differ substantially from the original surveillance definitions1 for both (A) residents without an indwelling catheter and (B) residents with an indwelling catheter. The revised definitions take into account the low probability of UTI in residents without indwelling catheters if localizing symptoms are not present, as well as the need for microbiologic confirmation for diagnosis. Continue reading “Revised McGeer Criteria for Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance (UTIs)”
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality. The consensus definitions of the Infectious Diseases Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group have been of immense value to researchers who conduct clinical trials of antifungals, assess diagnostic tests, and undertake epidemiologic studies. Continue reading “Criteria for Proven Invasive Fungal Disease”
The people are considered fully vaccinated for COVID-19 ≥2 weeks after they have received the second dose in a 2-dose series (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna), or ≥2 weeks after they have received a single-dose vaccine (Johnson and Johnson (J&J)/Janssen). Continue reading “Recommendations for Fully Vaccinated People with SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines”
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly identified pathogen and it is assumed there is no pre-existing human immunity to the virus. Initial seroconversion, including neutralizing antibodies, has been documented and there is some evidence that immunity to SARS-CoV-2 re-challenge during early convalescence is likely. Continue reading “Case Definition for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)”
These updated definitions and clinical criteria should replace previous definitions, offer greater consistency for epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, and facilitate earlier recognition and more timely management of patients with sepsis or at risk of developing sepsis. Continue reading “Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3)”
Chronic rhinosinusitis is defined by the presence of at least two out of four cardinal symptoms (i.e., facial pain/pressure, hyposmia/anosmia, nasal drainage, and nasal obstruction) for at least 12 consecutive weeks, in addition to objective evidence. Objective evidence of chronic rhinosinusitis may be obtained on physical examination (anterior rhinoscopy, endoscopy) or radiography, preferably from sinus computed tomography. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS)”
A novel human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in China in December 2019. There is limited support for many of its key epidemiologic features, including the incubation period for clinical disease (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]), which has important implications for surveillance and control activities. Continue reading “Viral Dynamics of Coronavirus (Covid-19)”