Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly identified pathogen and it is assumed there is no pre-existing human immunity to the virus. Initial seroconversion, including neutralizing antibodies, has been documented and there is some evidence that immunity to SARS-CoV-2 re-challenge during early convalescence is likely. Continue reading “Case Definition for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)”
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, called SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Continue reading “Case Definition for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)”
Reported symptoms have included fever in 90% of cases, fatigue and a dry cough in 80%, and shortness of breath in 20%, with respiratory distress in 15%. Chest x-rays have revealed signs in both lungs. Vital signs were generally stable at the time of admission of those hospitalised. Blood tests have commonly shown low white blood cell counts (leucopenia and lymphopenia). Continue reading “Surveillance Case Definitions for Human Infection with Novel Coronavirus (Covid-19)”
Since the first cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in the United States in 1981, surveillance case definitions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (the cause of AIDS) and AIDS have undergone several revisions to respond to diagnostic advances. Continue reading “Revised Surveillance Case Definition for HIV Infection”
The Berlin definition, proposed in 2012, breaks with tradition by establishing three risk strata that are based on the degree of hypoxemia as assessed at a minimum positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).
Continue reading “Berlin Definition of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)”
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a Gram-positive, sporeforming bacterium usually spread by the fecal-oral route. It is non-invasive and produces toxins A and B that cause disease, ranging from asymptomatic carriage, to mild diarrhea, to colitis, or pseudomembranous colitis. CDI is defined as the acute onset of diarrhea with documented toxigenic C. difficile or its toxin and no other documented cause for diarrhea.
Continue reading “Definitions of Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI)”
Early recognition is critical for infection control. Healthcare providers should be alert for and evaluate any patients suspected of having EVD.
Continue reading “Case Definition for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)”
In 2004, the ADQI group and representatives from three nephrology societies established the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN). Its intentions are to facilitate international, interdisciplinary and intersocietal collaborations and to ensure progress in the field of AKI, including the development of uniform standards for the definition and classification of AKI. As part of this process, the RIFLE nomenclature and classification was modified to a staging/classification system differentiating between AKI stage I, II and III. In addition, a 48-hour time window for the diagnosis of AKI was introduced to ensure that the process was acute.
Continue reading “Definition and Classification/Staging System for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)”
1996 Case Definition
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by the acute onset of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, renal injury, and a low platelet count. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) also is characterized by these features but can include central nervous system (CNS) involvement and fever and may have a more gradual onset. Most cases of HUS (but few cases of TTP) occur after an acute gastrointestinal illness (usually diarrheal).
Continue reading “Definition of Postdiarrheal Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)”
Bartter’s syndrome is a rare disease that most often presents in the neonatal period or early childhood with polyuria, polydipsia, salt craving, and growth retardation. Blood pressure is normal or low. Metabolic abnormalities include hypokalemia, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, decreased urinary concentrating and diluting ability, hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis, mild hypomagnesemia, and increased urinary prostaglandin excretion.
Continue reading “Definition and Characteristics of Bartter’s Syndrome”