Normal dietary consumption and absorption of copper exceed the metabolic need, and homeostasis of this element is maintained exclusively by the biliary excretion of copper. Wilson’s disease is an inherited disorder in which defective biliary excretion of copper leads to its accumulation, particularly in liver and brain. Continue reading “Diagnostic Scoring System for Wilson’s Disease”
The FIB4 index was developed in 2006 by Sterling as a non-invasive method to diagnose liver fibrosis and combines aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, platelet count, and age. Continue reading “Fibrosis-4 (FIB4) Scoring System for Liver Fibrosis”
The Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) is a novel risk-stratification system that classifies obese individuals into 5 graded categories, based on their morbidity and health-risk profile. Continue reading “Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS)”
Foot ulcerations are among the most complex and heterogeneous complications in patients with diabetes. Skin ulcers need to be managed in different ways dependent on their etiology and pathogenesis.
The 10 Saint Elian Wound Score System (SEWSS) categories is helpful in guiding treatment decisions based on severity subcategories.
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In 2005, the CT Colonography Reporting and Data System (C-RADS) was established to provide a means of classifying findings of CT colonography (CTC) and of applying the advantages of structured reporting to the setting of colorectal cancer screening.
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The Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) is an algorithm that can be used to classify lung nodules in patients with significant smoking histories.
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Transvaginal ultrasound is the main reference technique in the evaluation of adnexal masses. Based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) classification Amor et al. suggested adapting this system to gynecologic ultrasound for the evaluation of adnexal masses: Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) and based on recognition patterns and criteria recommended by the IOTA group.
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Thyroid nodules are a frequent finding on neck sonography. Most nodules are benign; therefore, many nodules are biopsied to identify the small number that are malignant or require surgery for a definitive diagnosis. In 2012, the ACR convened committees to (1) provide recommendations for reporting incidental thyroid nodules, (2) develop a set of standard terms (lexicon) for ultrasound reporting, and (3) propose a TI-RADS on the basis of the lexicon.
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PI-RADS is designed to improve focal lesion detection, localization, characterization, and risk stratification in patients with suspected cancer and consists of technical recommendation for MRI acquisition and a scoring system for image interpretation. PI-RADS uses a scale of 1–5 to report the overall probability of clinically significant prostate cancer on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). The use of PI-RADS is limited to treatment naive patients and it should not be used for staging, assessment of treatment outcome, recurrence, or progression during surveillance.
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The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) standardizes the interpretation, reporting, and data collection for imaging examinations in patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It assigns category codes reflecting relative probability of HCC to imaging-detected liver observations based on major and ancillary imaging features. LI-RADS also includes imaging features suggesting malignancy other than HCC.
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