Hypertensive disorders are common during pregnancy and can be classified into four pregnancy-associated categories: (1) chronic hypertension, (2) gestational hypertension, (3) preeclampsia, and (4) chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. In addition, non-pregnancy associated hypertensive emergencies can occur in the pregnant patient. Continue reading
Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy associated with new-onset hypertension, which occurs most often after 20 weeks of gestation and frequently near term. Although often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria, hypertension and other signs or symptoms of preeclampsia may present in some women in the absence of proteinuria. Continue reading
Vaginal infections affect a woman’s quality of life by causing frustration, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, and vulvovaginal discomfort. Continue reading
Transvaginal ultrasound is the main reference technique in the evaluation of adnexal masses. Based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) classification Amor et al. suggested adapting this system to gynecologic ultrasound for the evaluation of adnexal masses: Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) and based on recognition patterns and criteria recommended by the IOTA group.
The initial screening for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome should include specific questions about the patient’s personal and family history of breast and ovarian cancers, risk assessment, education, and counseling.
The freezing of oocytes has become a clinically viable option for women who wish to have a child in the future but are facing either an age-related or iatrogenic decrease in the quality and quantity of oocytes.
The incidence of cervical cancer, as well as mortality rates from the disease, has decreased over the past 30 years because of widespread screening with cervical cytology. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recently published a clinical management guideline on cervical cytology screening.
New criteria for the use of ultrasonography to assess prenatal viability, introduced by the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound, will help ensure obstetricians are not too hasty in determining that an embryo has ceased developing.
Preeclampsia: For the diagnosis of preeclampsia, both hypertension and proteinuria must be present.
- Blood pressure: 140 mm Hg or higher systolic or 90 mm Hg or higher diastolic after 20 weeks of gestation in a woman with previously normal blood pressure. Systolic increased > 30 mm Hg or diastolic increased > 15 mm Hg in a patient with preexisting chronic hypertension.
- Proteinuria: 0.3 g or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection (usually corresponds with 1+ or greater on a urine dipstick test) Continue reading