The 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) uterine cervical cancer staging system introduces a new primary tumor size cutoff value of 2 cm (ie, stage IB1 vs IB2), used to evaluate patients for fertility-sparing radical trachelectomy and to estimate prognosis. Continue reading “FIGO Staging Classification for Cervical Cancer”
Premenstrual disorders consist of psychiatric or somatic symptoms that develop within the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, affect the patient’s normal daily functioning, and resolve shortly after menstruation. The luteal phase begins after ovulation and ends with the start of menstruation. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) includes psychiatric and physical symptoms in describing premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)”
Hypertensive disorders are common during pregnancy and can be classified into four pregnancy-associated categories: (1) chronic hypertension, (2) gestational hypertension, (3) preeclampsia, and (4) chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. In addition, non-pregnancy associated hypertensive emergencies can occur in the pregnant patient. Continue reading “Acute Hypertensive Definitions in the Pregnant Patient”
Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy associated with new-onset hypertension, which occurs most often after 20 weeks of gestation and frequently near term. Although often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria, hypertension and other signs or symptoms of preeclampsia may present in some women in the absence of proteinuria. Continue reading “Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Preeclampsia”
Vaginal infections affect a woman’s quality of life by causing frustration, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, and vulvovaginal discomfort. Continue reading “Diagnostic Findings in Vaginal Secretions”
Transvaginal ultrasound is the main reference technique in the evaluation of adnexal masses. Based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) classification Amor et al. suggested adapting this system to gynecologic ultrasound for the evaluation of adnexal masses: Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) and based on recognition patterns and criteria recommended by the IOTA group.
Continue reading “Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS)”
The initial screening for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome should include specific questions about the patient’s personal and family history of breast and ovarian cancers, risk assessment, education, and counseling.
Continue reading “Initial Screening for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome”
The freezing of oocytes has become a clinically viable option for women who wish to have a child in the future but are facing either an age-related or iatrogenic decrease in the quality and quantity of oocytes.
Continue reading “Indications for Cryopreservation of Oocytes”
The incidence of cervical cancer, as well as mortality rates from the disease, has decreased over the past 30 years because of widespread screening with cervical cytology. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recently published a clinical management guideline on cervical cytology screening.
Continue reading “Cervical-Cancer Screening Guidelines”
New criteria for the use of ultrasonography to assess prenatal viability, introduced by the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound, will help ensure obstetricians are not too hasty in determining that an embryo has ceased developing.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Nonviable Pregnancy Early in the First Trimester”