Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), by definition, occurs when a woman has her last menstrual period before the age of 40, because of variable, and most often permanent ovarian dysfunction. It presents as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism with peripheral amenorrhea. It has a prevalence of 1-2%, but in women under 20 years its prevalence is one case in every 10,000 women. POI is a devastating diagnosis for women of reproductive age. Many conditions can lead to POI, but it is most commonly idiopathic, and it has a variable clinical presentation. It has serious health consequences, including psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, infertility, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and an increased risk of mortality. Continue reading “Diagnosis and Initial Evaluation of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency (POI)”
The staging system most often used for breast cancer is the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM system. The most recent AJCC system, has both clinical and pathologic staging systems for breast cancer. Continue reading “Breast Cancer Stages”
Staging is performed with the use of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) system and the tumor–node–metastasis (TNM) system. Continue reading “Staging Systems for Endometrial Cancer”
The 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) uterine cervical cancer staging system introduces a new primary tumor size cutoff value of 2 cm (ie, stage IB1 vs IB2), used to evaluate patients for fertility-sparing radical trachelectomy and to estimate prognosis. Continue reading “FIGO Staging Classification for Cervical Cancer”
Premenstrual disorders consist of psychiatric or somatic symptoms that develop within the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, affect the patient’s normal daily functioning, and resolve shortly after menstruation. The luteal phase begins after ovulation and ends with the start of menstruation. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) includes psychiatric and physical symptoms in describing premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)”
Hypertensive disorders are common during pregnancy and can be classified into four pregnancy-associated categories: (1) chronic hypertension, (2) gestational hypertension, (3) preeclampsia, and (4) chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. In addition, non-pregnancy associated hypertensive emergencies can occur in the pregnant patient. Continue reading “Acute Hypertensive Definitions in the Pregnant Patient”
Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy associated with new-onset hypertension, which occurs most often after 20 weeks of gestation and frequently near term. Although often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria, hypertension and other signs or symptoms of preeclampsia may present in some women in the absence of proteinuria. Continue reading “Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Preeclampsia”
Vaginal infections affect a woman’s quality of life by causing frustration, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, and vulvovaginal discomfort. Continue reading “Diagnostic Findings in Vaginal Secretions”
Transvaginal ultrasound is the main reference technique in the evaluation of adnexal masses. Based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) classification Amor et al. suggested adapting this system to gynecologic ultrasound for the evaluation of adnexal masses: Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) and based on recognition patterns and criteria recommended by the IOTA group.
Continue reading “Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS)”
The initial screening for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome should include specific questions about the patient’s personal and family history of breast and ovarian cancers, risk assessment, education, and counseling.
Continue reading “Initial Screening for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome”