Inhalation injury can feature supraglottic thermal injury, chemical irritation of the respiratory tract, systemic toxicity due to agents such as carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide, or a combination of these insults. The resultant inflammatory response may cause higher fluid resuscitation volumes, progressive pulmonary dysfunction, prolonged ventilator days, increased risk of pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Continue reading “Diagnosis of Inhalation Injury”
A vegetative state is absence of responsiveness and awareness due to overwhelming dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres, with sufficient sparing of the diencephalon and brain stem to preserve autonomic and motor reflexes and sleep-wake cycles.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Vegetative State (VS)”
Fat embolism syndrome, a condition characterized by hypoxia, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, and mental status change.
Continue reading “Criteria for Diagnostic of Fat Embolism Syndrome (FES)”
A patient without an obvious need was defined as one who did not require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation or as one who did not have hypotension requiring vasopressors while in the emergency department. Risk increases proportionally with the presence of more than three criteria.
Continue reading “Criteria for Consideration of ICU Admission for Patients without an Obvious Need”
Two scales are in common use, the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) and the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC).
Continue reading “Scoring Systems for the Diagnosis of Delirium in Critically Ill Patients”
Of the sedation scales described, the Riker Sedation–Agitation Scale and the Richmond Agitation–Sedation Scale are the most commonly reported, but in head-to-head comparison, neither is demonstrably superior Sedation Scales for Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Continue reading “Sedation Scales for Patients in the ICU”
Although the use of resuscitation fluids is one of the most common interventions in medicine, no currently available resuscitation fluid can be considered to be ideal. In light of recent high quality evidence, a reappraisal of how resuscitation fluids are used in acutely ill patients is now required. The selection, timing, and doses of intravenous fluids should be evaluated as carefully as they are in the case of any other intravenous drug, with the aim of maximizing efficacy and minimizing iatrogenic toxicity.
Continue reading “Recommendations for Fluid Resuscitation in Acutely Ill Patients”
Hypothermia may be determined clinically on the basis of vital signs with the use of the Swiss staging system.
Continue reading “Swiss Staging of Hypothermia”
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an essential link in the chain of survival for treating cardiac arrest.
Continue reading “Reversible Causes of Cardiac Arrest”