Cachexia, is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. The prominent clinical feature of cachexia is weight loss in adults (corrected for fluid retention) or growth failure in children (excluding endocrine disorders). Anorexia, inflammation, insulin resistance and increased muscle protein breakdown are frequently associated with wasting disease. Wasting disease is distinct from starvation, age-related loss of muscle mass, primary depression, malabsorption and hyperthyroidism and is associated with increased morbidity. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Wasting Disease (Cachexia) in Adults”
West syndrome is characterized by a specific type of seizure ( infantile spasms) and developmental regression.
The gold standard method of diagnosing infantile spasms is to capture them on video-EEG to confirm the ictal correlate of the seizure. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Infantile Spasms and West Syndrome”
Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) (previously hyperplastic polyposis) is defined by number and size of serrated polyps in the colon and rectum, but the definition is purely arbitrary and there is no known genotype.
SPS is associated with a high risk of colorectal cancer, not only in the affected patient, but also family members. The carcinogenesis can be rapid, with several series describing interval cancers occurring quickly. Continue reading “WHO Criteria for Diagnosis of Serrated Polyposis Syndrome (SPS)”
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by thrombotic and/or pregnancy morbidity associated with the presence of persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). There are many other clinical manifestations associated with persistent aPL (including immune thrombocytopenia, livedo reticularis, migraine, valvular heart disease and cognitive dysfunction). Continue reading “Sydney Classification Criteria for Definite Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS)”
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare, but potentially fatal, immune-mediated disease of the peripheral nerves and nerve roots that is usually triggered by infections. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Guillain–Barré Syndrome (GBS)”
Premenstrual disorders consist of psychiatric or somatic symptoms that develop within the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, affect the patient’s normal daily functioning, and resolve shortly after menstruation. The luteal phase begins after ovulation and ends with the start of menstruation. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) includes psychiatric and physical symptoms in describing premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)”
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, called SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Continue reading “Case Definition for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)”
The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Burnout Syndrome (BOS)”
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease characterized by chronic, profound, disabling, and unexplained fatigue. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)”
Restless legs syndrome (RLS), a neurological sensorimotor disease often profoundly disturbing sleep and quality of life has variable expression influenced by genetic, environmental and medical factors. The symptoms vary considerably in frequency from less than once a month or year to daily and severity from mildly annoying to disabling. Symptoms may also remit for various periods of time. Continue reading “Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)”