Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly identified pathogen and it is assumed there is no pre-existing human immunity to the virus. Initial seroconversion, including neutralizing antibodies, has been documented and there is some evidence that immunity to SARS-CoV-2 re-challenge during early convalescence is likely. Continue reading “Case Definition for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)”
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, called SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Continue reading “Case Definition for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)”
Reported symptoms have included fever in 90% of cases, fatigue and a dry cough in 80%, and shortness of breath in 20%, with respiratory distress in 15%. Chest x-rays have revealed signs in both lungs. Vital signs were generally stable at the time of admission of those hospitalised. Blood tests have commonly shown low white blood cell counts (leucopenia and lymphopenia). Continue reading “Surveillance Case Definitions for Human Infection with Novel Coronavirus (Covid-19)”
Since the first cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in the United States in 1981, surveillance case definitions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (the cause of AIDS) and AIDS have undergone several revisions to respond to diagnostic advances. Continue reading “Revised Surveillance Case Definition for HIV Infection”
Early recognition is critical for infection control. Healthcare providers should be alert for and evaluate any patients suspected of having EVD.
Continue reading “Case Definition for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)”
After identification of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Mexico, a case definition was developed. The initial definition of suspected novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection included any hospitalized patient with severe acute respiratory illness. On May 1, 2009, this definition was expanded to include any person with acute respiratory illness defined as fever and either sore throat or cough. On May 11, 2009, the definition of suspected case was changed again to include any person with:
Continue reading “Case Definition for Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection (Swine Flu)”
CDC has revised the classification system for HIV infection to emphasize the clinical importance of the CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in the categorization of HIV-related clinical conditions.
Continue reading “1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded AIDS Surveillance Case Definition for Adolescents and Adults”