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Pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (pSOFA) Score

The SOFA score at admission is useful for predicting outcomes in the Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) and is more accurate than SIRS for definition of paediatric sepsis.
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Diagnostic Criteria for Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disorder caused by mutations in the gene for the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes an ion channel protein, with more than 2000 mutations identified to date. A diagnosis of CF initially relied on phenotype, with clinical recognition of characteristic signs and symptoms. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Cystic Fibrosis”

Phototherapy and Exchange Transfusion in Neonatal Hyperbilirubinaemia

In unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, the ultimate goal is the prevention of kernicterus and its potentially devastating effects.
Phototherapy represented an important advance in the treatment of jaundice, enabling the effective and relatively rapid reduction of high bilirubin levels and facilitating the prevention of kernicterus.
Exchange transfusion is the only alternative to phototherapy for controlling hyperbilirubinaemia.
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Rochester Criteria for Identifying Febrile Infants at Low Risk for Serious Bacterial Infection

The Rochester criteria were developed to identify febrile infants aged 60 days or younger at low-risk of bacterial infection and do not include cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing.
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Criteria for Chronic Respiratory Failure in Infants and Children

Criteria for Chronic Respiratory Failure due to Cardiopulmonary Disorders in Infants and Children

Clinical criteria

  • Decreased inspiratory breath sounds
  • Increased retractions, use of accessory muscles
  • Cyanosis breathing room air
  • Decreased level of normal activity/function
  • Poor weight gain (mass) (IMPORTANT)

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Diagnostic Criteria for Cystic Fibrosis (CF)

The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis is based on clinical signs and symptoms consistent with the disease and objective evidence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction.

One or more typical phenotypic features of CF:

  • Chronic sinopulmonary disease

  • Characteristic gastrointestinal and nutritional abnormalities

  • Salt loss syndromes

  • Obstructive azoospermia

or

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Unexplained Fever in Young Children

Clinical and laboratory “low risk” criteria for children younger than 3 months with fever and no focus of infection

Clinical criteria

Diagnostic Criteria for Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

Necrotizing enterocolitis is among the most common and devastating diseases in neonates. The excessive inflammatory process initiated in the highly immunoreactive intestine in necrotizing enterocolitis extends the effects of the disease systemically, affecting distant organs such as the brain and placing affected infants at substantially increased risk for neurodevelopmental delays.
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