The SOFA score at admission is useful for predicting outcomes in the Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) and is more accurate than SIRS for definition of paediatric sepsis.
Continue reading “Pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (pSOFA) Score”
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disorder caused by mutations in the gene for the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes an ion channel protein, with more than 2000 mutations identified to date. A diagnosis of CF initially relied on phenotype, with clinical recognition of characteristic signs and symptoms. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Cystic Fibrosis”
The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. Continue reading “The Apgar Score”
Retinopathy of prematurity is a vision-threatening disease associated with abnormal retinal vascular development that occurs only in premature infants.
Continue reading “Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity (RP)”
In unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, the ultimate goal is the prevention of kernicterus and its potentially devastating effects.
Phototherapy represented an important advance in the treatment of jaundice, enabling the effective and relatively rapid reduction of high bilirubin levels and facilitating the prevention of kernicterus.
Exchange transfusion is the only alternative to phototherapy for controlling hyperbilirubinaemia.
Continue reading “Phototherapy and Exchange Transfusion in Neonatal Hyperbilirubinaemia”
Criteria for Chronic Respiratory Failure due to Cardiopulmonary Disorders in Infants and Children
- Decreased inspiratory breath sounds
- Increased retractions, use of accessory muscles
- Cyanosis breathing room air
- Decreased level of normal activity/function
- Poor weight gain (mass) (IMPORTANT)
Continue reading “Criteria for Chronic Respiratory Failure in Infants and Children”
The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis is based on clinical signs and symptoms consistent with the disease and objective evidence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction.
One or more typical phenotypic features of CF:
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Cystic Fibrosis (CF)”
Necrotizing enterocolitis is among the most common and devastating diseases in neonates. The excessive inflammatory process initiated in the highly immunoreactive intestine in necrotizing enterocolitis extends the effects of the disease systemically, affecting distant organs such as the brain and placing affected infants at substantially increased risk for neurodevelopmental delays.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)”