The SOFA score at admission is useful for predicting outcomes in the Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) and is more accurate than SIRS for definition of paediatric sepsis.
Continue reading “Pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (pSOFA) Score”
Foot ulcerations are among the most complex and heterogeneous complications in patients with diabetes. Skin ulcers need to be managed in different ways dependent on their etiology and pathogenesis.
The 10 Saint Elian Wound Score System (SEWSS) categories is helpful in guiding treatment decisions based on severity subcategories.
Continue reading “Saint Elian Wound Score System for Diabetic Foot Ulcers”
Breast cancer (BC) hormonal receptors status is assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), a specific, sensitive, and accessible method that guide breast cancer treatment. Continue reading “Allred Score for Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Evaluation”
The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. Continue reading “The Apgar Score”
PI-RADS is designed to improve focal lesion detection, localization, characterization, and risk stratification in patients with suspected cancer and consists of technical recommendation for MRI acquisition and a scoring system for image interpretation. PI-RADS uses a scale of 1–5 to report the overall probability of clinically significant prostate cancer on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). The use of PI-RADS is limited to treatment naive patients and it should not be used for staging, assessment of treatment outcome, recurrence, or progression during surveillance.
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The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), an accepted method of quantifying disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) consists of an eight-function system scale monitoring motor, sensory, cerebellar, brain stem, visual, bowel and bladder, pyramidal and other functions.
Continue reading “Kurtzke’s Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)”
Grading of hepatic encephalopathy categorizes it in clinical stages of stepwise worsening. The description of each grade varies somewhat in the literature, but differences between adjacent grades are clear enough to be helpful in clinical practice, although neurologic descriptors are sparse. One study showed that for patients who become comatose, the Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score is more discriminating than the West Haven grading system because it includes brain-stem and respiration assessment, which are not further differentiated in the West Haven system.
Continue reading “Criteria for Grading Hepatic Encephalopathy”
The use of the Alvarado scoring system, which includes clinical examination findings and laboratory values, is helpful in ruling out appendicitis. Scores range from 1 to 10, with higher scores indicating a greater risk of appendicitis. When the score is less than 4, appendicitis is uncommon, and imaging and other interventions can be avoided.
Continue reading “Alvarado Score for Acute Appendicitis”
Risk assessment tools can incorporate multiple variables to identify patients or subpopulations at risk for events. A recently developed risk score can identify cancer patients at high risk for VTE using a combination of easily available clinical and laboratory variables.
Continue reading “Modified Khorana Risk Score for Prediction of Venous Thromboembolic Events (VTE) in Patients with Cancer”
Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a clinicopathological diagnosis of a disorder that is defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) as “an acquired syndrome characterized by the intravascular activation of coagulation with loss of localization arising from different causes”. This condition typically originates in the microvasculature and can cause damage of such severity that it leads to organ dysfunction. It can be identified on the basis of a scoring system developed by the ISTH.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Scoring System for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)”