Normal dietary consumption and absorption of copper exceed the metabolic need, and homeostasis of this element is maintained exclusively by the biliary excretion of copper. Wilson’s disease is an inherited disorder in which defective biliary excretion of copper leads to its accumulation, particularly in liver and brain. Continue reading “Diagnostic Scoring System for Wilson’s Disease”
The FIB4 index was developed in 2006 by Sterling as a non-invasive method to diagnose liver fibrosis and combines aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, platelet count, and age. Continue reading “Fibrosis-4 (FIB4) Scoring System for Liver Fibrosis”
Foot ulcerations are among the most complex and heterogeneous complications in patients with diabetes. Skin ulcers need to be managed in different ways dependent on their etiology and pathogenesis.
The 10 Saint Elian Wound Score System (SEWSS) categories is helpful in guiding treatment decisions based on severity subcategories.
Continue reading “Saint Elian Wound Score System for Diabetic Foot Ulcers”
Breast cancer (BC) hormonal receptors status is assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), a specific, sensitive, and accessible method that guide breast cancer treatment. Continue reading “Allred Score for Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Evaluation”
The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. Continue reading “The Apgar Score”
Grading and staging refers to a semiquantitative assessment of the necroinflammatory activity (grade) and degree of fibrosis (stage) in relation to chronic hepatitis.
Continue reading “Histologic Scoring Systems for Chronic Liver Disease”
The Glasgow Blatchford Score (GBS) is a pre-endoscopic risk assessment tool for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH). It can predict need for intervention or death and identifies low risk patients suitable for out-patient management.
Continue reading “The Glasgow-Blatchford Bleeding Score (GBS) for Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding”
The Rockall score is an established and useful system to assess upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). The Rockall system has been shown to represent an accurate and valid predictor of rebleeding and death, performing better in the latter than in the former. Rockall scores are designed to combine information such as the subject’s age, occurrence of shock assessed from systolic blood pressure readings and pulse rate, presence and severity of comorbid conditions, diagnosis and endoscopic stigmata of recent bleeding.
Continue reading “The Rockall Scoring System”