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Clinical Diagnostic Criteria of IgG4-Related Sclerosing Cholangitis (IgG4-SC)

Sclerosing cholangitis (SC) is defined as a condition with progressive stenosis and destruction of the bile ducts due to diffuse inflammation and fibrosis and currently includes three categories: primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), secondary cholangitis, and IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC). SC categories share similar clinical features, such as cholestasis. Patients with SC present with cholestatic symptoms, including jaundice and pruritus, and blood tests reveal elevation of cholestatic enzymes. Continue reading “Clinical Diagnostic Criteria of IgG4-Related Sclerosing Cholangitis (IgG4-SC)”

Diagnostic Criteria for IgG4-Related Kidney Disease (IgG4-RKD)

IgG4-related disease is characterized by a high level of serum IgG4 and dense infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into multiple organs, with the kidney being one representative target. Although several sets of diagnostic criteria for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) are available and renal lesion is recognized as an extrapancreatic manifestation of AIP, it is difficult to differentiate IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) without
AIP from other types of TIN. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for IgG4-Related Kidney Disease (IgG4-RKD)”

International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Pancreatitis (AIP)

Autoimmune pancreatitis is a distinct form of pancreatitis characterized clinically by frequent presentation with obstructive jaundice with or without a pancreatic mass, histologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and fibrosis and therapeutically by a dramatic response to steroids. Continue reading “International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Pancreatitis (AIP)”

Diagnostic Criteria for Myeloid Neoplasms with Myelodysplasia

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are myeloid neoplasms characterized by clonal proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells, recurrent genetic abnormalities, myelodysplasia, ineffective hematopoiesis, peripheral-blood cytopenia, and a high risk of evolution to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Myeloid Neoplasms with Myelodysplasia”

Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

A diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) requires the patient’s plasma glucose concentration to be above 250 mg per dL (although it usually is much higher), the pH level to be less than 7.30, and the bicarbonate level to be 18 mEq per L or less. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State”

Diagnostic Criteria for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) focuses predominantly on psychiatric symptoms in its diagnostic criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Symptoms can occur anytime between menarche and menopause. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)”

Diagnostic Criteria for Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual disorders consist of psychiatric or somatic symptoms that develop within the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, affect the patient’s normal daily functioning, and resolve shortly after menstruation. The luteal phase begins after ovulation and ends with the start of menstruation. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) includes psychiatric and physical symptoms in describing premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)”

Diagnostic Criteria for Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH)

The clinical diagnosis of FH is founded on personal and family history, physical examination, and lipid concentrations. Three groups have developed clinical diagnostic tools for FH: the US MedPed Program, the Simon Broome Register Group in the United Kingdom, and the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH)”

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