Premenstrual disorders consist of psychiatric or somatic symptoms that develop within the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, affect the patient’s normal daily functioning, and resolve shortly after menstruation. The luteal phase begins after ovulation and ends with the start of menstruation. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) includes psychiatric and physical symptoms in describing premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
The clinical diagnosis of FH is founded on personal and family history, physical examination, and lipid concentrations. Three groups have developed clinical diagnostic tools for FH: the US MedPed Program, the Simon Broome Register Group in the United Kingdom, and the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network. Continue reading
Panic Disorder (PD) is characterized by episodic, unexpected panic attacks that occur without a clear trigger. Panic attacks are defined by the rapid onset of intense fear (typically peaking within about 10 minutes) with at least four of the physical and psychological symptoms in the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Continue reading
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited cause of kidney disease. Enlarging cysts within the kidneys are the clinical hallmark of the disease. Renal manifestations include varying degrees of kidney injury, urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and hematuria. Extrarenal manifestations can include pain, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, hepatic cysts, intracranial aneurysm, diverticulosis, and abdominal and inguinal hernias. Continue reading
The majority of rheumatic diseases are multisystem disorders with poorly understood etiology; they tend to be heterogeneous in their presentation, course, and outcome and do not have a single clinical, laboratory, pathologic, or radiologic feature that could serve as a “gold standard” in support of diagnosis and/or classification. Continue reading
Opioid analgesics (termed opioids in this report) are a class of drugs commonly prescribed to treat moderate to severe pain. Opioids include drugs available by prescription such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, morphine, and fentanyl. Opioids also include illicit substances such as heroin and fentanyl. Although often prescribed to control pain, opioids may also produce feelings of euphoria and sedation which may lead to misuse of opioids resulting in opioid use disorder. Continue reading
The diagnosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA) can be notoriously difficult, mainly because it is often solely based on history taking. Patients suspected of a TIA require an urgent assessment with timely start of antithrombotic therapy to reduce the risk of an early ischemic stroke. Continue reading
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is often characterized as a skill acquisition deficit disorder. Continue reading
Chronic rhinosinusitis is defined by the presence of at least two out of four cardinal symptoms (i.e., facial pain/pressure, hyposmia/anosmia, nasal drainage, and nasal obstruction) for at least 12 consecutive weeks, in addition to objective evidence. Objective evidence of chronic rhinosinusitis may be obtained on physical examination (anterior rhinoscopy, endoscopy) or radiography, preferably from sinus computed tomography. Continue reading
Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors designed to prevent weight gain. In addition, the self-evaluation of individuals with bulimia nervosa is excessively influenced by weight and body shape. The major change in criteria for diagnosis of bulimia nervosa is reducing the binge frequency threshold from twice per week in DSM-IV to once per week in DSM-5. The other differences include the DSM-IV differentiating between purging and nonpurging type (the DSM-5 does not) and the DSM-5 specifying criteria for partial remission, full remission, and severity, while the DSM-IV does not.