Plasma cell neoplasms including multiple myeloma (MM) and related terminally differentiated B-cell neoplasms are characterized by secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulin and stepwise development from a preneoplastic clonal B and/or plasma cell proliferation called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Diagnosis of these disorders requires integration of clinical, laboratory, and morphological features. Continue reading “IMWG Diagnostic Criteria for Multiple Myeloma and Related Plasma Cell Disorders”
Gas, bloating, and belching are associated with a variety of conditions but are most commonly caused by functional gastrointestinal disorders. These disorders are characterized by disordered motility and visceral hypersensitivity that are often worsened by psychological distress. Continue reading “Rome IV Diagnostic Criteria for Belching Disorders”
Nausea is a subjective symptom and can be defined as an unpleasant sensation of the imminent need to vomit, typically experienced in the epigastrium or throat. Vomiting refers to the forceful oral expulsion of gastrointestinal contents associated with contraction of the abdominal and chest wall muscles. Continue reading “Rome IV Diagnostic Criteria for Nausea and Vomiting Disorders”
The esophageal motility disorders are categorized as secondary and primary disorders. The pathogenesis of secondary motility disorders is associated with systemic diseases.
Continue reading “Characteristics of Esophageal Motility Disorders”
A peripheral-blood smear is a vital investigation tool in most cases to confirm a low platelet count and the presence or absence of other diagnostic features, such as red-cell fragmentation, platelet morphologic abnormalities, or evidence of dysplasia or hematinic deficiency.
Continue reading “Laboratory Findings in Various Platelet and Coagulation Disorders”
A 1992 American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine consensus panel defined the following terms which are relevant to the discussion of septic shock:
Infection: Infection is a microbial phenomenon characterized by an inflammatory response to the presence of microorganisms or the invasion of normally sterile host tissue by those organisms.
Bacteremia: Bacteremia refers to the presence of viable bacteria in the blood.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a widespread inflammatory response to a variety of severe clinical insults. This syndrome is clinically recognized by the presence of two or more of the following:
Continue reading “Definitions for the Terms Bacteremia, Sepsis, Severe Sepsis, Septic Shock, and Other Related Disorders”
The diagnosis of a Functional Disorder of the Anus and Rectum always presumes the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation for the symptoms.
Continue reading “ROME II Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Disorders of the Anus and Rectum”
The diagnosis of a Functional Disorder of the Biliary Tract and Pancreas always pre-sumes the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation for the symptoms.
Continue reading “ROME II Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Disorders of the Biliary Tract and the Pancreas”
The diagnosis of a Functional Gastroduodenal Disorder always presumes the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation for the symptoms.
Continue reading “ROME II Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Gastroduodenal Disorders”
The diagnosis of a Functional Esophageal Disorder always presumes the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation for the symptoms.
Continue reading “ROME II Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Esophageal Disorders”