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Indications and Contraindications for Abdominal Paracentesis

Removal of abdominal fluid is of value in evaluating patients with ascites of new onset or unknown etiology, and provides symptomatic relief in patients with known disease or in the setting of a decompensating clinical state. Abdominal paracentesis is a simple procedure that may be performed rapidly and with a minimum of equipment.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES)

Diagnostic criteria for ZES include the following:

  1. Elevated levels of Basal Acid Output (BAO), greater than 15 mEq in unoperated patients and greater than 5 mEq if previous acid-reducing surgery has been performed;
  2. Elevated level of fasting serum gastrin (>100 pg/mL until 1994, >200 pg/mL since 1994);
  3. Abnormal results from stimulation testing with secretin (an increase of >200 pg/mL postinjection) or with calcium (an increase >395 pg/mL);
  4. Positive histologic confirmation of gastrinoma; or
  5. A combination of these criteria. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES)”

Diagnostic Criteria for Wilson’s disease

Diagnostic Criteria for Wilson’s disease

  1. Low serum ceruloplasmin levels < 20 mg/dL (Normal range 20-50 mg/dL).
  2. Kayser – Fleischer rings in eyes.
  3. High liver copper levels > 250 micrograms/g dry weight (Normal range <35 micrograms/g dry weight).
  4. High 24 hr urinary copper levels > 100 micrograms /d or > 1.6 mmol/d (Normal range <50 micrograms/d or < 0.8 mmol/d).
  5. Radioisotope copper studies using 64Cu, 67Cu or 65Cu, which assesses ability to incorporate copper into ceruloplasmin. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Wilson’s disease”

ROME II Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Disorders of the Anus and Rectum

The diagnosis of a Functional Disorder of the Anus and Rectum always presumes the absence of a structural or biochemical explanation for the symptoms.

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Diagnosis of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP)

Indications for diagnostic paracentesis.

  • Cirrhotic patients with ascites at admission
  • Cirrhotic patients with ascites and signs or symptoms of infection: fever, leukocytosis, abdominal pain
  • Cirrhotic patients with ascites who present with a clinical condition that is deteriorating during hospitalization: renal function impairment, hepatic encephalopathy, gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Patients with new-onset ascites

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