The diagnostic and severity grading criteria on the 2018 Tokyo Guidelines (TG18) are used worldwide as the primary standard for management of acute cholangitis (AC). Continue reading
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause that is characterized pathologically by an inflammatory and fibrotic process centered on the epithelium, leading to diffuse biliary stenosis and increased wall thickness throughout the intra- and extra-hepatic biliary trees.
A. Clinical context and clinical manifestations
1. History of biliary disease
2. Fever and/or chills
4. Abdominal pain (right upper quadrant or upper abdominal)