Visual loss describes temporary or permanent reduction in visual acuity and/or field. Its aetiology is diverse due to the contributions of the different neuro-ophthalmic structures (eye, optic nerve, and brain) to image formation and perception, but may be categorised into ocular causes (corneal, lenticular, vitreoretinal and macular) or optic neuropathies. Continue reading “Clinical Approach to Vision Loss”
Sclerosing cholangitis (SC) is defined as a condition with progressive stenosis and destruction of the bile ducts due to diffuse inflammation and fibrosis and currently includes three categories: primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), secondary cholangitis, and IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC). SC categories share similar clinical features, such as cholestasis. Patients with SC present with cholestatic symptoms, including jaundice and pruritus, and blood tests reveal elevation of cholestatic enzymes. Continue reading “Clinical Diagnostic Criteria of IgG4-Related Sclerosing Cholangitis (IgG4-SC)”
The Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) Consortium has refined its recommendations about the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of DLB, updating the previous report, which has been in widespread use for the last decade. The revised DLB consensus criteria now distinguish clearly between clinical features and diagnostic biomarkers, and give guidance about optimal methods to establish and interpret these.
Continue reading “Revised Criteria for the Clinical Diagnosis of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB)”
The prerequisite to apply the Movement Disorder Society (MDS-PD) criteria is the diagnosis of parkinsonism, which is based on three cardinal motor manifestations. Parkinsonism is defined as bradykinesia, in combination with either rest tremor, rigidity, or both. These features must be clearly demonstrable and not attributable to confounding factors. Continue reading “MDS Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson’s Disease (PD)”
Cryoglobulinemia is usually classified into three subgroups according to Ig composition: type I cryoglobulinemia is composed of only one isotype or subclass of immunoglobulin. Both type II and type III mixed cryoglobulins are immune complexes composed of polyclonal IgGs, the autoantigens, and mono- or polyclonal IgMs, respectively; the IgMs are the corresponding autoantibodies with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity.
Continue reading “Classification and Clinico-Pathological Characteristics of Different Cryoglobulinemias”
Acute bacterial sinusitis in children is diagnosed on the basis of the history, with the use of the criteria. Imaging studies (plain-film radiography, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], and ultrasonography) show signs of sinus inflammation but are not recommended in patients with uncomplicated infection, given the low specificity of these studies.
Continue reading “Clinical Criteria for the Diagnosis of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis”
The red blood cell transfusions should not be dictated by a single hemoglobin “trigger” but instead should be based on the patient’s risks of developing complications of inadequate oxygenation. Red blood cell transfusion is rarely indicated when the hemoglobin concentration is greater than 10 g/dL and is almost always indicated when it is less than 6 g/dL.
Continue reading “Guidelines for the Clinical Use of Red Cell Transfusions”
The diagnosis of rheumatologic diseases is based on clinical information, blood and imaging tests, and in some cases on histology. Blood tests are useful in confirming clinically suspected diagnosis and monitoring the disease activity. The tests should be used as adjuncts to a comprehensive history and physical examination.
Continue reading “Clinical Laboratory Testing in the Rheumatic Diseases”
- Diagnosis of sarcoidosis is firm when chest radiographic evidence is accompanied by compatible clinical features and noncaseating granulomas on biopsy, with all other causes of granulomas ruled out.
- Biopsy is indicated for all patients presumed to have sarcoidosis, except those with Löfgren’s syndrome.
Continue reading “Diagnosis, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment of Sarcoidosis”