During the initial phase of the Covid-19 outbreak, the diagnosis of the disease was complicated by the diversity in symptoms and imaging findings and in the severity of disease at the time of presentation. Continue reading
The majority (50 to 80%) of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic ZIKV infection has an incubation period of 3 to 14 days and is a mild illness, with a duration of up to 1 week, that manifests as a rash, low-grade fever, arthralgia and myalgia, and conjunctivitis. Complications are infrequent, but when they occur, they are severe and may be fatal. Continue reading
Anaphylaxis can present with a spectrum of signs and symptoms affecting multiple organ systems, including the skin, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system, nervous system, and both the upper and lower respiratory tracts; hallmarks of anaphylaxis are the development of hypotension or the involvement of more than one organ system.
The clinical characteristics of normal and adventitious sounds are summarized.
Cryoglobulinemia is usually classified into three subgroups according to Ig composition: type I cryoglobulinemia is composed of only one isotype or subclass of immunoglobulin. Both type II and type III mixed cryoglobulins are immune complexes composed of polyclonal IgGs, the autoantigens, and mono- or polyclonal IgMs, respectively; the IgMs are the corresponding autoantibodies with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity.
The autosomal recessive inherited primary hyperoxalurias types I, II and III are caused by defects in glyoxylate metabolism that lead to the endogenous overproduction of oxalate.
Bartter’s syndrome is a rare disease that most often presents in the neonatal period or early childhood with polyuria, polydipsia, salt craving, and growth retardation. Blood pressure is normal or low. Metabolic abnormalities include hypokalemia, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, decreased urinary concentrating and diluting ability, hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis, mild hypomagnesemia, and increased urinary prostaglandin excretion.
- Diagnosis of sarcoidosis is firm when chest radiographic evidence is accompanied by compatible clinical features and noncaseating granulomas on biopsy, with all other causes of granulomas ruled out.
- Biopsy is indicated for all patients presumed to have sarcoidosis, except those with Löfgren’s syndrome.
Clinical Features of Nephrotic Syndrome
The nephrotic syndrome is a clinical complex characterized by:
- proteinuria of >3.5 g per 1.73 m2 per 24 h (in practice, >3.0 to 3.5 g per 24 h),
- lipiduria, and
Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also called Willis-Ekbom Disease, causes unpleasant or uncomfortable sensations in the legs and an irresistible urge to move them.