The majority (50 to 80%) of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic ZIKV infection has an incubation period of 3 to 14 days and is a mild illness, with a duration of up to 1 week, that manifests as a rash, low-grade fever, arthralgia and myalgia, and conjunctivitis. Complications are infrequent, but when they occur, they are severe and may be fatal. Continue reading “Features of Congenital Zika Syndrome”
The thalassemias are a group of inherited hematologic disorders caused by defects in the synthesis of one or more of the hemoglobin chains. Alpha thalassemia is caused by reduced or absent synthesis of alpha globin chains, and beta thalassemia is caused by reduced or absent synthesis of beta globin chains. Imbalances of globin chains cause hemolysis and impair erythropoiesis.
Continue reading “Features of the Thalassemias”
Anaphylaxis can present with a spectrum of signs and symptoms affecting multiple organ systems, including the skin, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system, nervous system, and both the upper and lower respiratory tracts; hallmarks of anaphylaxis are the development of hypotension or the involvement of more than one organ system.
Continue reading “Clinical Features of Anaphylaxis”
Irritant-induced occupational asthma is a term used to describe occupational asthma that occurs from exposure to agents considered to be airway irritants, in the absence of sensitization.
Continue reading “Criteria for the Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS)”
The autosomal recessive inherited primary hyperoxalurias types I, II and III are caused by defects in glyoxylate metabolism that lead to the endogenous overproduction of oxalate.
Continue reading “Features and Treatment of the Inherited Primary Hyperoxalurias”
Clinical Features of Nephrotic Syndrome
The nephrotic syndrome is a clinical complex characterized by:
- proteinuria of >3.5 g per 1.73 m2 per 24 h (in practice, >3.0 to 3.5 g per 24 h),
- lipiduria, and
Continue reading “Clinical Features of Nephrotic and Nephritic Syndrome”
Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also called Willis-Ekbom Disease, causes unpleasant or uncomfortable sensations in the legs and an irresistible urge to move them.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria and Associated Features of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)”