Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is an autosomal dominantly inherited type of diabetes that results from heterozygous mutations in various transcription factors acting in the development and maturation of pancreatic β-cells. In addition, mutations in enzymes involved in glucose sensing of the β-cell have also been shown to result in early-onset diabetes. Characteristic features of MODY are autosomal inheritance, early onset of diabetes (with diagnosis generally before the age of 25 years), no signs related to the autoimmune process or insulin resistance, and preservation of endogenous insulin secretion. Continue reading “MODY subtypes: gene mutations, pathophysiology, and clinical characteristics”
Cytokine storm is an umbrella term encompassing several disorders of immune dysregulation characterized by constitutional symptoms, systemic inflammation, and multiorgan dysfunction that can lead to multiorgan failure if inadequately treated. Continue reading “Clinical Causes of Cytokine Storm”
During the initial phase of the Covid-19 outbreak, the diagnosis of the disease was complicated by the diversity in symptoms and imaging findings and in the severity of disease at the time of presentation. Continue reading “Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19)”
Anaphylaxis can present with a spectrum of signs and symptoms affecting multiple organ systems, including the skin, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system, nervous system, and both the upper and lower respiratory tracts; hallmarks of anaphylaxis are the development of hypotension or the involvement of more than one organ system.
Continue reading “Clinical Features of Anaphylaxis”
Thyroiditis refers to a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the thyroid gland. With the help of historical information, a physical examination and diagnostic tests, physicians can classify the type of thyroiditis and initiate appropriate treatment.
Continue reading “Clinical Manifestations of Thyroiditis Subtypes”
Clinical Features of Nephrotic Syndrome
The nephrotic syndrome is a clinical complex characterized by:
- proteinuria of >3.5 g per 1.73 m2 per 24 h (in practice, >3.0 to 3.5 g per 24 h),
- lipiduria, and
Continue reading “Clinical Features of Nephrotic and Nephritic Syndrome”
DIC represents a continuum in clinical-pathological severity, characterised by the increasing loss of localisation or compensated control in intravascular activation of coagulation. Continue reading “Clinical Conditions Associated with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)”