Two criteria must be diagnose AIHA: serologic evidence of an autoantibody and clinical or laboratory evidence of hemolysis. Serologic evidence of an autoantibody is provided by positive autocontrol and direct antiglobulin test (DAT, direct Coombs´ test) results and subsequent identification of an autoantibody in the RBC eluate and possibly the serum. Serum reactivity with autologous RBCs generally indicates the presence of an autoantibody, but it does not exclude the presence of an autoantibody.
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Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by dysregulation of the immune system due to an inability to regulate lymphocyte homeostasis through the process of lymphocyte apoptosis (a form of programmed cell death). The consequences of this include lymphoproliferative disease, manifested by lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and an increased risk of lymphoma, as well as autoimmune disease, typically involving blood cells.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS)”
The Wells Clinical Prediction Rule is a diagnostic tool used during review of systems to identify possible pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Continue reading “Wells Clinical Prediction Rule for Pulmonary Embolism and Deep Venous Thrombosis”
Diagnostic Criteria for Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)
- Heparin exposure >5 days
- Relative thrombocytopenia: decrease in platelet count by 50% from baseline OR absolute thrombocytopenia: decrease in platelet count to less than 100 to 150 x 109/L
- Absence of other causes of thrombocytopenia
- Development of new thrombosis, or extension of pre-existing thrombosis, while receiving heparin therapy
- Confirmation by laboratory testing
- Return to normal platelet count when heparin is discontinued Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)”