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Diagnostic Criteria for Peripartum Cardiomyopathy

Typically, peripartum cardiomyopathy occurs in the first 4 months postpartum; fewer than 10% of cases occur prepartum. Common symptoms include dyspnea, cough, orthopnea, hemoptysis, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. Most affected patients have New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV function. Additional symptoms include nonspecific fatigue, malaise, palpitations, chest and abdominal discomfort, and postural hypotension. Diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion, because symptoms of peripartum cardiomyopathy can be confused with physiologic changes associated with advanced pregnancy. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Peripartum Cardiomyopathy”

Diagnostic Criteria for Cannabis Use Disorder

Cannabis use induces a variety of acute psychological and physiological effects that vary in intensity and duration according to the dose, the route of administration, and the degree of tolerance in the user. Acute psychological effects include euphoria (“high”), relaxation, and sedation (usually desired by persons who use cannabis recreationally), increased appetite (“munchies”) and impaired short-term memory, concentration, and psychomotor coordination. Some people experience increased anxiety, panic attacks, or paranoia, especially at higher doses. Psychotic symptoms, such as perceptual alterations, hallucinations, and delusions, are less common. Acute physical effects include impaired motor coordination, slurred speech, dry mouth, conjunctival injection (“red eye”), tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, and horizontal nystagmus. Smoked cannabis induces cough, wheezing, and dyspnea; increases sputum production; and exacerbates asthma. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Cannabis Use Disorder”

Diagnostic Criteria for Catatonia

Catatonia has a complex presentation that is composed of multiple signs and symptoms, of which only three need to be present for diagnosis. It may be thought of as occurring with schizophrenia or with mania; however, patients in other settings with various general medical health conditions may develop an episode of catatonia. It is essential to identify catatonia early on for treatment to protect the patient from developing any further complications. A number of medical conditions can mask catatonia, delaying its treatment.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHS) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS)

Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an immunopathologic disease; dengue virus–antibody immune complexes trigger release of vasoactive mediators by macrophages. The mediators increase vascular permeability, causing vascular leakage, hemorrhagic manifestations, hemoconcentration, and serous effusions, which can lead to circulatory collapse (ie, dengue shock syndrome). Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHS) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS)”

IMWG Diagnostic Criteria for Multiple Myeloma and Related Plasma Cell Disorders

Plasma cell neoplasms including multiple myeloma (MM) and related terminally differentiated B-cell neoplasms are characterized by secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulin and stepwise development from a preneoplastic clonal B and/or plasma cell proliferation called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Diagnosis of these disorders requires integration of clinical, laboratory, and morphological features. Continue reading “IMWG Diagnostic Criteria for Multiple Myeloma and Related Plasma Cell Disorders”

Diagnostic Criteria of Periprosthetic Joint Infection (PJI)

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious and potentially devastating complication that can occur after joint replacement surgery, such as hip or knee replacement. It refers to the presence of an infection in or around the artificial joint (prosthesis) that has been implanted during the surgical procedure.
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Diagnostic Criteria for Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA)

The diagnostic criteria for ABPA include a history of asthma, evidence of Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) IgE sensitisation on blood and/or skin tests, elevated total IgE levels and eosinophil counts, detection of Aspergillus precipitins or IgG, isolation of A. fumigatus in sputum cultures, presence of pulmonary infiltrates on chest x rays and distribution of bronchiectasis on CT chest scans. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA)”

Kocher Criteria for Septic Arthritis

Kocher identified four predictive factors that can aid in differentiating septic arthritis of the hip from transient synovitis. Fever >38.5 C, inability to bear weight, serum white blood cell count (WBC) >12,000/mm3, and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) ≥40 mm/h were found to be associated with septic arthritis of the hip. The presence of all four factors was 99.6% predictive of septic hip. Continue reading “Kocher Criteria for Septic Arthritis”

Diagnostic Criteria for Rheumatoid Cachexia

Cachexia in RA (rheumatoid cachexia, RC), is mainly characterized by loss of muscle mass, in particular appendicular lean mass (ALM), and associated with accumulated fat mass (FM), situated mainly in the trunk area, indicating a shift towards the development of abdominal obesity. The loss of body cell mass (BCM) consists of an important issue of concern for patients with RA. BCM consists primarily of muscle and visceral mass (erythrocytes, serum proteins, lymphocytes, etc.), and is the part of the body with the greatest metabolic activity (95% of the total activity), determining protein requirements, energy expenditure, and the metabolic response to stress.

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