Diagnostic Criteria for Internet Addiction

Behavioural addiction affects a vast number of individuals and occurs when people find themselves unable to control the frequency or amount of a previously harmless behavior such as love, sex, gambling, work, internet and chatroom usage, shopping or exercise. Behavioural addictions are considered impulse-control disorders and share many underlying similarities to substance addictions, including aspects of tolerance, withdrawal, repeated unsuccessful attempts to cut back or quit and impairment in everyday life functioning. Continue reading

Definitions and Diagnostic Criteria for Pericarditis

Pericardial syndromes include different clinical presentations of pericardial diseases with distinctive signs and symptoms that can be grouped in specific ‘syndromes’. The classical pericardial syndromes include pericarditis, pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade and constrictive pericarditis. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disorder caused by mutations in the gene for the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes an ion channel protein, with more than 2000 mutations identified to date. A diagnosis of CF initially relied on phenotype, with clinical recognition of characteristic signs and symptoms. Continue reading

Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction

The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms “impaired control” paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment. Continue reading

New Diagnostic and Treatment Criteria for Hypertension in Adults

The definition of hypertension was recently changed by the American College of Cardiology – American Heart Association to a systolic arterial pressure of more than 130 mm Hg, a diastolic pressure of more than 80 mm Hg, or both. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease characterized by chronic, profound, disabling, and unexplained fatigue. Continue reading

STOPP/START Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing in Older People

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older people currently represent a serious and growing public health problem. Polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing (IP) are wellknown risk factors for ADRs, which commonly cause adverse clinical outcomes in older people IP encompasses potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs). STOPP/START criteria for potential IP in older people recognise the dual nature of IP by including a list of PIMs (STOPP criteria) and PPOs (START criteria). Continue reading

WHO Diagnostic Criteria for Prefibrotic or Early-Stage Myelofibrosis (pre-PMF)

Prefibrotic myelofibrosis (pre-PMF) is a distinct entity among chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm diagnosed according to the revised WHO classification. The clinical picture is heterogeneous, ranging from isolated thrombocytosis, mimicking essential thrombocythemia (ET), to symptoms of high-risk PMF. Continue reading

DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by psychotic symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech, by negative symptoms such as decreased motivation and diminished expressiveness, and by cognitive deficits involving impaired executive functions, memory, and speed of mental processing. Continue reading