Rasmussen’s encephalitis (RE) is a rare chronic inflammatory brain disorder resulting in progressive neurodegeneration in one cerebral hemisphere. The inflammatory process is accompanied by progressive loss of function of the affected hemisphere, associated with drug-resistant partial epilepsy. The diagnosis is based on a range of clinical, electroencephalographic, radiological and biochemical arguments, without any specific formal marker, which makes the diagnosis of the disease complex, especially in its initial phase. Seizures are refractory to anti-seizures medication (ASM) and to classical immunomodulatory treatments.
Continue reading “Clinical Criteria for Rasmussen´s Encephalitis”
Regular exercising has many health benefits and is rightly seen as positive, socially acceptable behavior. However, for the same reason, there is a high risk that patients and clinicians may overlook the danger of exercise addiction that causes harm in the somatic, emotional and interpersonal spheres. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Addiction to Physical Exercises”
Fracture-related infection (FRI) is a severe complication following bone injury and can pose a diagnostic challenge. There is a spectrum of clinical presentations of FRI and differentiating them from noninfected causes can be difficult. In the early postoperative period, classical clinical symptoms of infection, such as pain, redness, warmth, or swelling, overlap with features of normal fracture healing. Later, more subtle clinical presentations such as fracture nonunion or persistent pain can be attributable to both infective and noninfective conditions. The complexity and variety of FRI may have hindered the establishment of uniform diagnostic criteria.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Fracture-Related Infection (FRI)”
The gold standard for diagnosing acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients is tissue biopsy. Indications to pursue graft biopsy over concern for acute rejection include either an acute, otherwise unexplained deterioration in graft function or the presence of a biomarker consistent with acute rejection. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria of Acute Rejection in Kidney Transplants”
West syndrome is characterized by a specific type of seizure ( infantile spasms) and developmental regression.
The gold standard method of diagnosing infantile spasms is to capture them on video-EEG to confirm the ictal correlate of the seizure. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Infantile Spasms and West Syndrome”
For the WHO caries assessment system, the examiner recorded a surface as decayed only if it presented with detectably softened floor, undermined enamel or a softened wall. According to this criterion, all the stages that precede cavitation as well as other conditions similar to the early stages of a carious lesion were considered sound.
For the ICDAS system, the D stands for detection of dental caries by (i) stage of the carious process; (ii) topography (pit and fissure or smooth surfaces); (iii) anatomy (crown vs roots); and (iv) restoration or sealant status. The A in the ICDAS stands for assessment of the carious process by the stage (non-cavitated or cavitated) and activity (active or arrested). This study does not include an assessment of the lesion activity or root caries.
Continue reading “Caries Detection with ICDAS and the WHO Criteria”
These new insights into the heterogeneous genetic mutations and phenotypic manifestations of ACM led to a critical revision of the 2010 ITF criteria, which exclusively targeted RV classical forms and did not include the tissue characterization by contrast enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Accordingly, an International Expert consensus document has been recently developed to provide upgraded criteria (“the Padua Criteria”) for the diagnosis of the whole spectrum of ACM phenotypes. Continue reading “New Diagnostic Criteria for Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy”
Portal hypertension is the haemodynamic abnormality associated with the most severe complications of cirrhosis, including ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and bleeding from gastroesophageal varices. Variceal bleeding is a medical emergency associated with a mortality that, in spite of recent progress, is still in the order of 10–20% at 6 weeks. The evaluation of diagnostic tools and the design and conduct of good clinical trials for the treatment of portal hypertension have always been difficult. Continue reading “Baveno VI Criteria for Compensated Advanced Chronic Liver Disease (cACLD)”
Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is a rare and life-threatening autoimmune bullous disease that classically occurs in the setting of an underlying neoplasm. PNP is also known as paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome (PAMS) because of its varied mucocutaneous and systemic deleterious effects. Due to the variable disease characteristics and lack of formally accepted diagnostic criteria, PNP remains a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Continue reading “Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Paraneoplastic Pemphigus (PNP)”
Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) syndrome describes the simultaneous deterioration of bone, muscle and excess fat, resulting in reduced functionality and systemic metabolic dysregulation. The key component contributing to this may be ectopic fat in the viscera, bone and muscle. Continue reading “Revised Physical Diagnostic Criteria for Osteosarcopenic Obesity (OSO)”