Clinical manifestations vary between species of snakes. Some toxins in venom exert local effects such as swelling, blistering, bruising, and necrosis at the bite site. Other toxins can be distributed systemically through lymphatics and blood vessels and act at distant sites. Common systemic effects include bleeding, paralysis, generalised rhabdomyolysis, and acute kidney injury. Venom injection deep into a limb can cause tissue swelling in the tightly constrained space and compromise neurovascular function. This manifests as “acute compartment syndrome.” Continue reading “Symptoms and First Aid for Venomous Snake Bites”
The general notion of frailty is widely understood to be a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, following age-related declines in function and reserves across multiple physiological systems. Frailty is clinically characterised by slower and/or incomplete recovery from stressors such as infection, injury, surgery or psychosocial distress. Continue reading “Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS)”
The FAST scale is a functional scale designed to evaluate patients at the more moderate-severe stages of dementia when the MMSE no longer can reflect changes in a meaningful clinical way.
Continue reading “Functional Assessment Scale Tool (FAST)”
The Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) encompasses six basic human functions: bathing, dressing, toileting, transfer, continence, and feeding. It provides an objective method of classifying heterogeneous groups of people with chronic illnesses, disabilities and impairments, and of describing their health needs and outcomes.
Continue reading “Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living”