Cachexia, is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. The prominent clinical feature of cachexia is weight loss in adults (corrected for fluid retention) or growth failure in children (excluding endocrine disorders). Anorexia, inflammation, insulin resistance and increased muscle protein breakdown are frequently associated with wasting disease. Wasting disease is distinct from starvation, age-related loss of muscle mass, primary depression, malabsorption and hyperthyroidism and is associated with increased morbidity. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Wasting Disease (Cachexia) in Adults”
The general notion of frailty is widely understood to be a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, following age-related declines in function and reserves across multiple physiological systems. Frailty is clinically characterised by slower and/or incomplete recovery from stressors such as infection, injury, surgery or psychosocial distress. Continue reading “Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS)”
The clinical diagnosis of an epileptic seizure requires a detailed history taking and, ideally, an eyewitness account of the seizure. Evaluation with 12-lead electrocardiography is essential in a patient who has had a first seizure or an unexplained blackout spell.
Patients who have had an epileptic seizure should be informed about factors that may provoke seizures (e.g., sleep deprivation and alcohol use), the risk of a seizure occurring while driving or engaging in solitary activities, and the risks of harm from further seizures. Continue reading “Common Types of Seizures in Adolescents and Adults”
The definition of hypertension was recently changed by the American College of Cardiology – American Heart Association to a systolic arterial pressure of more than 130 mm Hg, a diastolic pressure of more than 80 mm Hg, or both. Continue reading “New Diagnostic and Treatment Criteria for Hypertension in Adults”
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) accounts for 2%-12% of all cases of diabetes. Patients are typically diagnosed after 35 years of age and are often misdiagnosed as type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Glycemic control is initially achieved with sulfonylureas, but patients eventually become insulin dependent more rapidly than with type II DM patients.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA)”
“Prediabetes” is the term used for individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and indicates an increased risk for the future development of diabetes. IFG and IGT should not be viewed as clinical entities in their own right but rather risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). IFG and IGT are associated with obesity (especially abdominal or visceral obesity), dyslipidemia with high triglycerides and/or low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension.
Continue reading “Criteria for Testing for Diabetes or Prediabetes in Asymptomatic Adults”
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is defined as repeated episodes of obstructive apneas and hypopneas during sleep, frequently followed by transient hemoglobin desaturation (hypoxemia) and unconscious (EEG) arousals.
Continue reading “Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in Adults and Children”
Physicians, health care workers, members of the clergy, and laypeople throughout the world have accepted fully that a person is dead when his or her brain is dead. Continue reading “Criteria for Brain Death in Adults and Children”
CDC has revised the classification system for HIV infection to emphasize the clinical importance of the CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in the categorization of HIV-related clinical conditions.
Continue reading “1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded AIDS Surveillance Case Definition for Adolescents and Adults”