Pituitary adenomas account for approximately 15% of intracranial tumors. Management of these benign tumors requires diagnosis of the specific intrasellar disease and comprehensive, multidisciplinary treatment of local mass effects and peripheral endocrinopathies. Since tumors can produce different hormones, their consequences and management vary widely. Continue reading “Testing to Diagnose Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Tumors”
Testing for H. pylori is recommended in patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, or gastric mucosa–associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma). Other recommended indications for testing include dyspepsia, prolonged use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs or aspirin, unexplained iron-deficiency anemia, and immune thrombocytopenia. Continue reading “Indications for Testing for Helicobacter pylori Infection”
“Prediabetes” is the term used for individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and indicates an increased risk for the future development of diabetes. IFG and IGT should not be viewed as clinical entities in their own right but rather risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). IFG and IGT are associated with obesity (especially abdominal or visceral obesity), dyslipidemia with high triglycerides and/or low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension.
Continue reading “Criteria for Testing for Diabetes or Prediabetes in Asymptomatic Adults”
The antigens and antibodies associated with HBV infection include HBsAg (Australia antigen) and antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) and antibody to HBcAg (anti-HBc), and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe). At least one serologic marker is present during the different phases of HBV infection.
Continue reading “Serologic Testing for the Diagnosis of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection”
The diagnosis of rheumatologic diseases is based on clinical information, blood and imaging tests, and in some cases on histology. Blood tests are useful in confirming clinically suspected diagnosis and monitoring the disease activity. The tests should be used as adjuncts to a comprehensive history and physical examination.
Continue reading “Clinical Laboratory Testing in the Rheumatic Diseases”
The muscle scale grades muscle power on a scale of 0 to 5 in relation to the maximum expected for that muscle.
Continue reading “Medical Research Council (MRC) Scale for Muscle Strength”