Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD) is a life-threatening complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) that belongs to a group of diseases increasingly identified as transplant-related, systemic endothelial diseases. In most cases, SOS/VOD resolves within weeks; however, severe SOS/VOD results in multi-organ dysfunction/failure with a mortality rate >80%. Continue reading “Diagnosis and Severity Criteria for Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome/Veno-Occlusive Disease in Children”
This guideline provides global, evidence-informed recommendations on a number of specific issues related to the management of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children, Continue reading “Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Infants and Children”
The Ross Heart Failure Classification was developed to provide a global assessment of heart failure severity in infants, and has subsequently been modified to apply to all pediatric ages. The modified Ross Classification incorporates feeding difficulties, growth problems, and symptoms of exercise intolerance into a numeric score comparable with the NYHA classification for adults.
Continue reading “NYHA and Modified Ross Heart Failure Classification for Children”
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines malnutrition as the cellular imbalance between the supply of nutrients and energy and the body’s demand for them to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific functions.
Malnutrition generally implies undernutrition and refers to all deviations from adequate and optimal nutritional status in infants, children and in adults. In children, undernutrition manifests as underweight and stunting (short stature), while severely undernourished children present with the symptoms and signs that characterize conditions known as kwashiorkor, marasmus or marasmic-kwashiorkor.
Continue reading “Classification of Malnutrition in Children”
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is defined as repeated episodes of obstructive apneas and hypopneas during sleep, frequently followed by transient hemoglobin desaturation (hypoxemia) and unconscious (EEG) arousals.
Continue reading “Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in Adults and Children”
Physicians, health care workers, members of the clergy, and laypeople throughout the world have accepted fully that a person is dead when his or her brain is dead. Continue reading “Criteria for Brain Death in Adults and Children”
Criteria for Chronic Respiratory Failure due to Cardiopulmonary Disorders in Infants and Children
- Decreased inspiratory breath sounds
- Increased retractions, use of accessory muscles
- Cyanosis breathing room air
- Decreased level of normal activity/function
- Poor weight gain (mass) (IMPORTANT)
Continue reading “Criteria for Chronic Respiratory Failure in Infants and Children”