The MMSE is an easily administered 30-point test of cognitive function and contains tests of orientation, working and episodic memory, language comprehension, naming, and copying.
Continue reading “The Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE)”
The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is an index derived from the Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire used by clinicians and researchers to quantify disability for low back pain. Zero is equated with no disability and 100 is the maximum disability possible. Continue reading “The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) Version 2.1a or Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire”
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been known by many names, but most commonly as reflex sympathetic dystrophy and causalgia (as attributed to Evans and Mitchell, respectively). In the past, it was diagnosed using a variety of nonstandardized and idiosyncratic diagnostic systems. The name was ultimately changed to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) at a consensus workshop in Orlando, Florida, in 1994, with the new name and diagnostic criteria codified by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) task force on taxonomy.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)”
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the reactivation of a ubiquitous polyomavirus JC (JCV). PML was for many years a rare disease occurring only in patients with underlying severe impaired immunity.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)”
Classic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is a human prion disease. It is a neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic clinical and diagnostic features. This disease is rapidly progressive and always fatal. Infection with this disease leads to death, usually within 1 year of onset of illness. The criteria for clinical diagnosis plus the CSF real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) accurately identifies patients with sCJD (sensitivity 97%, specificity 99%).
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (sCJD)”
These criteria are applied by testing the median, ulnar (stimulated below the elbow), peroneal (stimulated below the fibular head), and tibial nerves on one side of the body. During testing, limb temperature should be no less than 33°C at the palm and no less than 30°C at the external malleolus.
Continue reading “Electrodiagnostic Criteria for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP)”
Small fiber neuropathy manifests in a variety of different diseases and often results in symptoms of burning pain, shooting pain, allodynia, and hyperesthesia.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Small Fibre Neuropathy (SFN)”
Bell’s palsy is a peripheral palsy of the facial nerve that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face.
Continue reading “Clinical Criteria for Bell’s Palsy (Idiopathic Facial Nerve Paralysis)”
Physicians, health care workers, members of the clergy, and laypeople throughout the world have accepted fully that a person is dead when his or her brain is dead. Continue reading “Criteria for Brain Death in Adults and Children”
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a brief but intense attack of inflammation (swelling) in the brain and spinal cord and occasionally the optic nerves that damages the brain’s myelin (the white coating of nerve fibers).
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)”