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Diagnostic Criteria of Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

The Endocrine Society guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of Acute Adrenal Insufficiency (AAI) defines an adrenal crisis as a medical emergency with hypotension, abdominal symptoms and laboratory abnormalities requiring emergency treatment.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Peripartum Cardiomyopathy

Typically, peripartum cardiomyopathy occurs in the first 4 months postpartum; fewer than 10% of cases occur prepartum. Common symptoms include dyspnea, cough, orthopnea, hemoptysis, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. Most affected patients have New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV function. Additional symptoms include nonspecific fatigue, malaise, palpitations, chest and abdominal discomfort, and postural hypotension. Diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion, because symptoms of peripartum cardiomyopathy can be confused with physiologic changes associated with advanced pregnancy. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Peripartum Cardiomyopathy”

Diagnostic Criteria for Cannabis Use Disorder

Cannabis use induces a variety of acute psychological and physiological effects that vary in intensity and duration according to the dose, the route of administration, and the degree of tolerance in the user. Acute psychological effects include euphoria (“high”), relaxation, and sedation (usually desired by persons who use cannabis recreationally), increased appetite (“munchies”) and impaired short-term memory, concentration, and psychomotor coordination. Some people experience increased anxiety, panic attacks, or paranoia, especially at higher doses. Psychotic symptoms, such as perceptual alterations, hallucinations, and delusions, are less common. Acute physical effects include impaired motor coordination, slurred speech, dry mouth, conjunctival injection (“red eye”), tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, and horizontal nystagmus. Smoked cannabis induces cough, wheezing, and dyspnea; increases sputum production; and exacerbates asthma. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Cannabis Use Disorder”

Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) Score

The Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) is a tool used to measure the severity of psoriasis, a chronic autoimmune skin condition characterized by red, scaly patches on the skin. PASI takes into account the extent of psoriatic involvement (area) as well as the severity of erythema (redness), induration (thickness), and desquamation (scaling) present within the involved regions. It provides a quantitative assessment of psoriasis severity and is commonly used in clinical trials and practice to monitor disease progression and treatment efficacy. Continue reading “Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) Score”

Diagnostic Criteria for Catatonia

Catatonia has a complex presentation that is composed of multiple signs and symptoms, of which only three need to be present for diagnosis. It may be thought of as occurring with schizophrenia or with mania; however, patients in other settings with various general medical health conditions may develop an episode of catatonia. It is essential to identify catatonia early on for treatment to protect the patient from developing any further complications. A number of medical conditions can mask catatonia, delaying its treatment.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHS) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS)

Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an immunopathologic disease; dengue virus–antibody immune complexes trigger release of vasoactive mediators by macrophages. The mediators increase vascular permeability, causing vascular leakage, hemorrhagic manifestations, hemoconcentration, and serous effusions, which can lead to circulatory collapse (ie, dengue shock syndrome). Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHS) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS)”

Diagnosis of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES)

The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological disorder of (sub)acute onset characterized by varied neurological symptoms, which may include headache, impaired visual acuity or visual field deficits, disorders of consciousness, confusion, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. Continue reading “Diagnosis of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES)”

Manifestations of Right-Sided Heart Failure (RHF)

The diverse causes of right-sided heart failure (RHF) include, among others, primary cardiomyopathies with right ventricular (RV) involvement, RV ischemia and infarction, volume loading caused by cardiac lesions associated with congenital heart disease and valvular pathologies, and pressure loading resulting from pulmonic stenosis or pulmonary hypertension from a variety of causes, including left-sided heart disease. Continue reading “Manifestations of Right-Sided Heart Failure (RHF)”

Risk Factors of Budd-Chiari Syndrome

Primary Budd-Chiari syndrome is characterized by a blocked hepatic venous outflow tract at various levels from small hepatic veins to inferior vena cava, resulting from thrombosis or its fibrous sequellae. This rare disease affects mainly young adults. Multiple risk factors have been identified and are often combined in the same patient. Continue reading “Risk Factors of Budd-Chiari Syndrome”

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