Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) syndrome describes the simultaneous deterioration of bone, muscle and excess fat, resulting in reduced functionality and systemic metabolic dysregulation. The key component contributing to this may be ectopic fat in the viscera, bone and muscle. Continue reading “Revised Physical Diagnostic Criteria for Osteosarcopenic Obesity (OSO)”
Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) (previously hyperplastic polyposis) is defined by number and size of serrated polyps in the colon and rectum, but the definition is purely arbitrary and there is no known genotype.
SPS is associated with a high risk of colorectal cancer, not only in the affected patient, but also family members. The carcinogenesis can be rapid, with several series describing interval cancers occurring quickly. Continue reading “WHO Criteria for Diagnosis of Serrated Polyposis Syndrome (SPS)”
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by thrombotic and/or pregnancy morbidity associated with the presence of persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). There are many other clinical manifestations associated with persistent aPL (including immune thrombocytopenia, livedo reticularis, migraine, valvular heart disease and cognitive dysfunction). Continue reading “Sydney Classification Criteria for Definite Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS)”
Gas, bloating, and belching are associated with a variety of conditions but are most commonly caused by functional gastrointestinal disorders. These disorders are characterized by disordered motility and visceral hypersensitivity that are often worsened by psychological distress. Continue reading “Rome IV Diagnostic Criteria for Belching Disorders”
Nausea is a subjective symptom and can be defined as an unpleasant sensation of the imminent need to vomit, typically experienced in the epigastrium or throat. Vomiting refers to the forceful oral expulsion of gastrointestinal contents associated with contraction of the abdominal and chest wall muscles. Continue reading “Rome IV Diagnostic Criteria for Nausea and Vomiting Disorders”
The Awaji recommendations for the use of electrodiagnostic studies in the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were proposed to enable earlier diagnosis of ALS to be achieved to meet an acknowledged need to obviate diagnostic delay. Continue reading “Awaji Criteria for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)”
Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines address the definition, classification, and management of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Continue reading “KDIGO Criteria for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)”
Cytokine storm is an umbrella term encompassing several disorders of immune dysregulation characterized by constitutional symptoms, systemic inflammation, and multiorgan dysfunction that can lead to multiorgan failure if inadequately treated. Continue reading “Clinical Causes of Cytokine Storm”
Efficacy and continued technical improvements in CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) have produced a significant rise in its use for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). The growth of CTPA has produced a corresponding reduction in the utilization of pulmonary scintigraphy to the extent that some publications have suggested that lung scanning has become a second-line test. Lung ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy along with modified prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED) interpretation criteria has been utilized to diagnose acute PE. More recently, a simplified algorithm comprising pulmonary perfusion scan along with prospective investigative study of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PISAPED) interpretation criteria has shown a reduction of intermediate probability as one of the lung scan readings generated by the modified PIOPED criteria and has improved the sensitivity and specificity of the lung scintigraphy along with the modified PIOPED criteria to detect acute PE. Continue reading “PIOPED II, PISAPED and CTPA Criteria for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolus”
Evaluation and management of Covid-19 depend on the severity of the disease. Patients with mild disease usually recover at home, whereas patients with moderate disease should be monitored closely and sometimes hospitalized.
Continue reading “Characteristics and Management of Covid-19 According to Disease Severity”