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Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Pancreatitis

Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) is a debilitating disease that classically presents with recurrent bouts of acute pancreatitis, chronic abdominal pain as well as evidence of end organ damage. This is a result of extensive fibrosis and inflammation within the gland that eventually leads to both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Pancreatitis”

Screening for Advanced Fibrosis Related to NAFLD/NASH

Approximately 37% of adults, and as many as 70% of individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a subtype of NAFLD characterized by inflammation, ballooning, and Mallory’s hyaline on liver biopsy, can lead to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Both NAFLD and NASH are also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular and liver-related mortality, and impaired health-related quality of life.  Continue reading “Screening for Advanced Fibrosis Related to NAFLD/NASH”

The Global Deterioration Scale for Primary Degenerative Dementia

The Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) provides caregivers an overview of the stages of cognitive function for those suffering from a primary degenerative dementia such as Alzheimer’s disease. It is broken down into 7 different stages. Stages 1-3 are the pre-dementia stages. Stages 4-7 are the dementia stages. Biginning in stage 5, an individual can no longer survive without assistance. Within the GDS, each stage is numbered (1-7), given a short title (i.e., Forgetfulness, Early Confusional, etc. followed by a brief listing of the characteristics for that stage. Caregivers can get a rough idea of where an individual is at in the disease process by observing that individual’s behavioral characteristics and comparing them to the GDS. For more specific assessments, use Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS) and the Functional Assessment Staging (FAST) measures.
Continue reading “The Global Deterioration Scale for Primary Degenerative Dementia”

Prague C&M Criteria for the Endoscopic Grading of Barrett’s Esophagus

The Prague C & M criteria, developed for the endoscopic grading of Barrett’s esophagus (BE), (C = circumferential length, M = maximal length) were previously validated among a panel of expert endoscopists with a special interest in BE. Continue reading “Prague C&M Criteria for the Endoscopic Grading of Barrett’s Esophagus”

Diagnostic Criteria for Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD)

Compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) is currently defined as an impulse control disorder and “characterized by a persistent pattern of failure to control intense, repetitive sexual urges and behaviors” where an individual (1) devotes excessive time to sexual activities to the point of neglecting health, personal care, interests, and responsibilities, (2) experiences diminished control manifest by multiple unsuccessful efforts to reduce sexual behavior, (3) continues sexual activity despite adverse consequences, (4) continues engagement in sexual behavior even when little or no satisfaction is derived, and (5) experiences significant distress or impairment across life domains or important areas of functioning. The classification also cautions, “Distress that is entirely related to moral judgments and disapproval about sexual impulses, urges, or behaviors is not sufficient to meet this requirement.” Additionally, paraphilic disorders are exclusionary. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD)”

Symptoms and First Aid for Venomous Snake Bites

Clinical manifestations vary between species of snakes. Some toxins in venom exert local effects such as swelling, blistering, bruising, and necrosis at the bite site. Other toxins can be distributed systemically through lymphatics and blood vessels and act at distant sites. Common systemic effects include bleeding, paralysis, generalised rhabdomyolysis, and acute kidney injury. Venom injection deep into a limb can cause tissue swelling in the tightly constrained space and compromise neurovascular function. This manifests as “acute compartment syndrome.” Continue reading “Symptoms and First Aid for Venomous Snake Bites”

Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS)

The general notion of frailty is widely understood to be a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, following age-related declines in function and reserves across multiple physiological systems. Frailty is clinically characterised by slower and/or incomplete recovery from stressors such as infection, injury, surgery or psychosocial distress. Continue reading “Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS)”

Diagnostic Criteria of Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (aCML)

Atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia (aCML), BCR/ABL1 negative is a rare disorder classified into the category of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN), according to the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. It is, by definition, a BCR-ABL1-negative clonal disorder sharing myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative features. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria of Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (aCML)”

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