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Prague C&M Criteria for the Endoscopic Grading of Barrett’s Esophagus

The Prague C & M criteria, developed for the endoscopic grading of Barrett’s esophagus (BE), (C = circumferential length, M = maximal length) were previously validated among a panel of expert endoscopists with a special interest in BE. Continue reading “Prague C&M Criteria for the Endoscopic Grading of Barrett’s Esophagus”

Diagnostic Criteria for Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD)

Compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) is currently defined as an impulse control disorder and “characterized by a persistent pattern of failure to control intense, repetitive sexual urges and behaviors” where an individual (1) devotes excessive time to sexual activities to the point of neglecting health, personal care, interests, and responsibilities, (2) experiences diminished control manifest by multiple unsuccessful efforts to reduce sexual behavior, (3) continues sexual activity despite adverse consequences, (4) continues engagement in sexual behavior even when little or no satisfaction is derived, and (5) experiences significant distress or impairment across life domains or important areas of functioning. The classification also cautions, “Distress that is entirely related to moral judgments and disapproval about sexual impulses, urges, or behaviors is not sufficient to meet this requirement.” Additionally, paraphilic disorders are exclusionary. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD)”

Symptoms and First Aid for Venomous Snake Bites

Clinical manifestations vary between species of snakes. Some toxins in venom exert local effects such as swelling, blistering, bruising, and necrosis at the bite site. Other toxins can be distributed systemically through lymphatics and blood vessels and act at distant sites. Common systemic effects include bleeding, paralysis, generalised rhabdomyolysis, and acute kidney injury. Venom injection deep into a limb can cause tissue swelling in the tightly constrained space and compromise neurovascular function. This manifests as “acute compartment syndrome.” Continue reading “Symptoms and First Aid for Venomous Snake Bites”

Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS)

The general notion of frailty is widely understood to be a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, following age-related declines in function and reserves across multiple physiological systems. Frailty is clinically characterised by slower and/or incomplete recovery from stressors such as infection, injury, surgery or psychosocial distress. Continue reading “Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS)”

Diagnostic Criteria of Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (aCML)

Atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia (aCML), BCR/ABL1 negative is a rare disorder classified into the category of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN), according to the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. It is, by definition, a BCR-ABL1-negative clonal disorder sharing myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative features. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria of Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (aCML)”

Clinical Criteria for Rasmussen´s Encephalitis

Rasmussen’s encephalitis (RE) is a rare chronic inflammatory brain disorder resulting in progressive neurodegeneration in one cerebral hemisphere. The inflammatory process is accompanied by progressive loss of function of the affected hemisphere, associated with drug-resistant partial epilepsy. The diagnosis is based on a range of clinical, electroencephalographic, radiological and biochemical arguments, without any specific formal marker, which makes the diagnosis of the disease complex, especially in its initial phase. Seizures are refractory to anti-seizures medication (ASM) and to classical immunomodulatory treatments.

Continue reading “Clinical Criteria for Rasmussen´s Encephalitis”

Diagnostic Criteria for Addiction to Physical Exercises

Regular exercising has many health benefits and is rightly seen as positive, socially acceptable behavior. However, for the same reason, there is a high risk that patients and clinicians may overlook the danger of exercise addiction that causes harm in the somatic, emotional and interpersonal spheres. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Addiction to Physical Exercises”

Point Scale for Metabolic Obesity in People with Normal Body Weight (MONW)

Disorders of metabolic obesity with normal body weight (MONW) are widely recognized risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Despite this, MONW is not diagnosed in clinical practice. Continue reading “Point Scale for Metabolic Obesity in People with Normal Body Weight (MONW)”

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