Definition of Transgender Persons

Gender identity is the term used to describe a person’s sense of being male, female, neither, or some combination of both. The terms “transgender,” “transsexual,” “trans,” “gender nonbinary,” “gender incongruent,” and “genderqueer” are adjectives for persons with gender identities that are not aligned with the sex recorded at birth. “Cisgender” is the term for persons who are not transgender – that is, persons whose sex recorded at birth aligns with their gender identity. Continue reading

Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator

BMI is body weight divided by a power of height, usually (height)2, which is said to be independent of stature. Calculations based on values for ideal body weight suggest that BMIs for normal men and women should be in the range of 18.5 to 25 kg/m2. Indeed, this range roughly corresponds to the 10th to 75th percentile values recorded from adult individuals. For infants and children, average BMI values change with age, from 13 kg/m2 at birth, to a peak of 18 at about 1 year, a nadir of 15 at about age 6 years, and then a rise to adult values during adolescence. Continue reading

WHO Diagnostic Criteria for Prefibrotic or Early-Stage Myelofibrosis (pre-PMF)

Prefibrotic myelofibrosis (pre-PMF) is a distinct entity among chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm diagnosed according to the revised WHO classification. The clinical picture is heterogeneous, ranging from isolated thrombocytosis, mimicking essential thrombocythemia (ET), to symptoms of high-risk PMF. Continue reading

DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by psychotic symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech, by negative symptoms such as decreased motivation and diminished expressiveness, and by cognitive deficits involving impaired executive functions, memory, and speed of mental processing. Continue reading

Classification of Ulcer-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

The Forrest classification is a widely used classification of ulcer-related upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It was initially developed to unify the description of ulcer bleeding for better communication amongst endoscopists. However, the Forrest Classification is now used as a tool to identify patients who are at an increased risk for bleeding, rebleeding and mortality. Continue reading

Acute Hypertensive Definitions in the Pregnant Patient

Hypertensive disorders are common during pregnancy and can be classified into four pregnancy-associated categories: (1) chronic hypertension, (2) gestational hypertension, (3) preeclampsia, and (4) chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. In addition, non-pregnancy associated hypertensive emergencies can occur in the pregnant patient. Continue reading

Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)

Restless legs syndrome (RLS), a neurological sensorimotor disease often profoundly disturbing sleep and quality of life has variable expression influenced by genetic, environmental and medical factors. The symptoms vary considerably in frequency from less than once a month or year to daily and severity from mildly annoying to disabling. Symptoms may also remit for various periods of time. Continue reading

Revised Criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common condition in the elderly. It is characterized by deterioration of memory, attention, and cognitive function that is beyond what is expected based on age and educational level. MCI does not interfere significantly with individuals’ daily activities. Continue reading