The majority of rheumatic diseases are multisystem disorders with poorly understood etiology; they tend to be heterogeneous in their presentation, course, and outcome and do not have a single clinical, laboratory, pathologic, or radiologic feature that could serve as a “gold standard” in support of diagnosis and/or classification. Continue reading
There are several tools available to evaluate health websites. Most of them list criteria that reliable websites should meet. Here is a summary of the main criteria. Continue reading
Placebo and nocebo effects are the effects of patients’ positive and negative expectations, respectively, concerning their state of health. These effects occur in many clinical contexts, including treatment with an active agent or a placebo in clinical practice or in a clinical trial, the informed consent process, the provision of information about medical treatments, and public health campaigns. Placebo effects cause beneficial outcomes, and nocebo effects cause harmful and dangerous outcomes.
In 1968, Wilson and Jungner published 10 “principles” for evaluating screening programs, criteria widely used since then.
Characteristics of the disease
1. Disease has serious consequences
2. Screening population has a high incidence* of disease
3. Risk factor is a good predictor of disease