Implications of Placebo and Nocebo Effects

Placebo and nocebo effects are the effects of patients’ positive and negative expectations, respectively, concerning their state of health. These effects occur in many clinical contexts, including treatment with an active agent or a placebo in clinical practice or in a clinical trial, the informed consent process, the provision of information about medical treatments, and public health campaigns. Placebo effects cause beneficial outcomes, and nocebo effects cause harmful and dangerous outcomes.
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