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Investigations to Evaluate Sensory Ganglionopathies

Among disorders that cause sensory loss, the most distinctive are those that affect the sensory ganglia. These disorders are called sensory neuronopathies or sensory ganglionopathies. The importance of sensory ganglia, in addition to the unique topography of sensory loss that occurs when they are diseased, lies in their close association with general medical disorders, and paraneoplastic disorders in particular. Furthermore, ganglia may be susceptible to autoimmune attack because of the fenestrated endothelial cells that form a permeable blood–nerve barrier. Continue reading “Investigations to Evaluate Sensory Ganglionopathies”

Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1)

Neurofibromatosis type 1, inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, is characterized by multiple café-au-lait macules (CALMs), skinfold freckling (more correctly termed lentiginous macules since they occur in non–sun exposed areas), iris Lisch nodules, tumors of the nervous system, and other features. Continue reading “Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1)”

Diagnostic Criteria for Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

The diagnosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA) can be notoriously difficult, mainly because it is often solely based on history taking. Patients suspected of a TIA require an urgent assessment with timely start of antithrombotic therapy to reduce the risk of an early ischemic stroke. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)”

Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)

Restless legs syndrome (RLS), a neurological sensorimotor disease often profoundly disturbing sleep and quality of life has variable expression influenced by genetic, environmental and medical factors. The symptoms vary considerably in frequency from less than once a month or year to daily and severity from mildly annoying to disabling. Symptoms may also remit for various periods of time. Continue reading “Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)”

Revised Criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common condition in the elderly. It is characterized by deterioration of memory, attention, and cognitive function that is beyond what is expected based on age and educational level. MCI does not interfere significantly with individuals’ daily activities. Continue reading “Revised Criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)”

Diagnostic Criteria for Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)

The combination of raised intracranial pressure, without hydrocephalus or mass lesion, normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition and where no underlying aetiology is found are accepted criteria for the diagnosis of IIH. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)”

Indications for Intracranial Pressure Monitoring

Monitoring of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) is an invasive technique and has some associated risks. For a favorable risk-to-benefit ratio, ICP monitoring is indicated only in patients with significant risk of intracranial hypertension. Continue reading “Indications for Intracranial Pressure Monitoring”

Updated Diagnostic Criteria for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is highly variable in clinical presentation and findings. Disease manifestations continue to develop over the lifetime of an affected individual. Accurate diagnosis is fundamental to implementation of appropriate medical surveillance and treatment. Continue reading “Updated Diagnostic Criteria for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)”

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