The Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) provides caregivers an overview of the stages of cognitive function for those suffering from a primary degenerative dementia such as Alzheimer’s disease. It is broken down into 7 different stages. Stages 1-3 are the pre-dementia stages. Stages 4-7 are the dementia stages. Biginning in stage 5, an individual can no longer survive without assistance. Within the GDS, each stage is numbered (1-7), given a short title (i.e., Forgetfulness, Early Confusional, etc. followed by a brief listing of the characteristics for that stage. Caregivers can get a rough idea of where an individual is at in the disease process by observing that individual’s behavioral characteristics and comparing them to the GDS. For more specific assessments, use Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS) and the Functional Assessment Staging (FAST) measures.
Continue reading “The Global Deterioration Scale for Primary Degenerative Dementia”
The general notion of frailty is widely understood to be a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, following age-related declines in function and reserves across multiple physiological systems. Frailty is clinically characterised by slower and/or incomplete recovery from stressors such as infection, injury, surgery or psychosocial distress. Continue reading “Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS)”
Disorders of metabolic obesity with normal body weight (MONW) are widely recognized risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Despite this, MONW is not diagnosed in clinical practice. Continue reading “Point Scale for Metabolic Obesity in People with Normal Body Weight (MONW)”
The modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale is recommended for conducting assessments of dyspnea and disability and functions as an indicator of exacerbation. Continue reading “Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) Dyspnea Scale”
The HDRS (also known as the Ham-D) is the most widely used clinician-administered depression assessment scale. The original version contains 17 items (HDRS17) pertaining to symptoms of depression experienced over the past week. Continue reading “Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D)”
The SOFA score at admission is useful for predicting outcomes in the Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) and is more accurate than SIRS for definition of paediatric sepsis.
Continue reading “Pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (pSOFA) Score”
Preoperative anxiety is a frequent and challenging problem with deleterious effects on the development of surgical procedures and postoperative outcomes. To prevent and treat preoperative anxiety effectively, the level of anxiety of patients needs to be assessed through valid and reliable measuring instruments. One such measurement tool is the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS). Continue reading “Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS)”
The numeric rating scale (NRS) is a single 11-point numeric scale broadly validated across myriad patient types. Data obtained via NRS are easily documented, intuitively interpretable, and meet regulatory requirements for pain assessment and documentation. Continue reading “Numeric Pain Rating Scale”
Arteriovenous malformations of the brain are congenital anomalies of the blood vessels that are derived from maldevelopment of the capillary network, allowing direct connections between cerebral arteries and veins. The most common presenting symptoms are cerebral hemorrhage and seizures. Focal neurologic deficits and headaches may develop independent of cerebral bleeding. As a result of the widespread use of brain imaging, arteriovenous malformations are increasingly being discovered incidentally.
Continue reading “Spetzler–Martin Grading Scale for Arteriovenous Malformations of the Brain”
Somatic symptoms are the core features of many medical diseases, and they are used to evaluate the severity and course of illness. The 8-item Somatic Symptom Scale (SSS-8) was recently developed as a brief, patient-reported outcome measure of somatic symptom burden.