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Guidelines for Intervention in Patients with Chronic Severe Secondary Mitral Regurgitation

International practice guidelines for the care of patients with valvular heart disease were most recently updated in 2017, before the publication of the results of the COAPT and MITRA-FR trials in 2018, and these guidelines were conservative in their recommendations regarding surgery for secondary mitral regurgitation. Continue reading “Guidelines for Intervention in Patients with Chronic Severe Secondary Mitral Regurgitation”

Principles and Techniques of Blood Pressure Measurement

The accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) is essential for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Regardless of who is measuring BP or the method used (eg, auscultatory or oscillometric), the accuracy of the BP readings relies on standardized techniques and appropriate observer training.  Continue reading “Principles and Techniques of Blood Pressure Measurement”

Killip-Kimball Classification for Acute Myocardial Infarction

The classification or index of heart failure severity in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was proposed by Killip and Kimball aiming at assessing the risk of in-hospital death and the potential benefit of specific management of care provided in Coronary Care Units (CCU). Continue reading “Killip-Kimball Classification for Acute Myocardial Infarction”

Definitions and Diagnostic Criteria for Pericarditis

Pericardial syndromes include different clinical presentations of pericardial diseases with distinctive signs and symptoms that can be grouped in specific ‘syndromes’. The classical pericardial syndromes include pericarditis, pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade and constrictive pericarditis. Continue reading “Definitions and Diagnostic Criteria for Pericarditis”

New Diagnostic and Treatment Criteria for Hypertension in Adults

The definition of hypertension was recently changed by the American College of Cardiology – American Heart Association to a systolic arterial pressure of more than 130 mm Hg, a diastolic pressure of more than 80 mm Hg, or both. Continue reading “New Diagnostic and Treatment Criteria for Hypertension in Adults”

Diagnostic Criteria for the Brugada Syndrome (BrS)

Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a rare inherited arrhythmia syndrome leading to an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, despite a structurally normal heart. Diagnosis is based on a specific electrocardiogram pattern, observed either spontaneously or during a sodium channel blocker test. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for the Brugada Syndrome (BrS)”

Diagnostic Criteria for Vasospastic Angina (VSA)

Vasospastic angina (VSA) is a variant form of angina pectoris, in which angina occurs at rest, with transient electrocardiogram modifications and preserved exercise capacity. VSA can be involved in many clinical scenarios, such as stable angina, sudden cardiac death, acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia or syncope. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Vasospastic Angina (VSA)”

Criteria for the Diagnosis of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC)

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy that predominantly affects the right ventricle. With a prevalence in the range of 1:5000 to 1:2000 persons, ARVC is one of the leading causes of sudden cardiac death in young people and in athletes. Continue reading “Criteria for the Diagnosis of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC)”

Universal Definitions of Myocardial Injury and Myocardial Infarction

With the introduction of more sensitive cardiac biomarkers, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) collaborated to redefine MI using a biochemical and clinical approach, and reported that myocardial injury detected by abnormal biomarkers in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia should be labelled as MI. Continue reading “Universal Definitions of Myocardial Injury and Myocardial Infarction”

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