The pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) was designed to identify patients in whom the risk of testing outweighs the benefits (the “test threshold”, which for pulmonary embolism (PE) was calculated as a 2% prevalence). Continue reading “Pulmonary Embolism Rule-out Criteria (PERC)”
In 2000, IPF was defined as a specific form of chronic, progressive, fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause, occurring primarily in older adults and limited to the lungs. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the histopathological pattern of IPF. IPF is characterized by progressive worsening of dyspnea and lung function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)”
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is defined as repeated episodes of obstructive apneas and hypopneas during sleep, frequently followed by transient hemoglobin desaturation (hypoxemia) and unconscious (EEG) arousals.
Continue reading “Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in Adults and Children”
Indications for chest drain insertion
- Diagnosis of sarcoidosis is firm when chest radiographic evidence is accompanied by compatible clinical features and noncaseating granulomas on biopsy, with all other causes of granulomas ruled out.
- Biopsy is indicated for all patients presumed to have sarcoidosis, except those with Löfgren’s syndrome.
Continue reading “Diagnosis, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment of Sarcoidosis”
Criteria for Chronic Respiratory Failure due to Cardiopulmonary Disorders in Infants and Children
- Decreased inspiratory breath sounds
- Increased retractions, use of accessory muscles
- Cyanosis breathing room air
- Decreased level of normal activity/function
- Poor weight gain (mass) (IMPORTANT)
Continue reading “Criteria for Chronic Respiratory Failure in Infants and Children”
CURB and CRB-65 scores can be used in the hospital and out-patients setting to assess pneumonia severity and the risk of death.
Continue reading “CURB-65 and CRB-65 Severity Scores for Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)”
The Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) staging system for lung cancer is an internationally accepted system used to characterize the extent of disease. The TNM system combines features of the tumor into disease stage groups that correlate with survival and are linked to recommendations for treatment.
Continue reading “Tumor, Node, Metastasis International Staging System for Lung Cancer”
The hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized as the triad of liver disease, pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities leading to arterial deoxygenation and evidence of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for the Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS)”