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EULAR/ACR New Classification Criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

The new EULAR/ACR classification criteria use anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) as an entry criterion. (Non-infectious) fever is the one new criterion. All criteria items now have individual weights (from 2 to 10) and are structured in domains, within which only the highest item is counted. There is one common attribution rule, counting criteria only if there is no more likely alternative explanation. Ten points are sufficient for classification. The new criteria have reached a sensitivity of 96.1% and a specificity of 93.4%. Continue reading “EULAR/ACR New Classification Criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)”

FIGO Staging Classification for Cervical Cancer

The 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) uterine cervical cancer staging system introduces a new primary tumor size cutoff value of 2 cm (ie, stage IB1 vs IB2), used to evaluate patients for fertility-sparing radical trachelectomy and to estimate prognosis. Continue reading “FIGO Staging Classification for Cervical Cancer”

Classification Criteria for IgG4-Related Disease

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease is an immune mediated condition resulting in disease in various organs of the body such as the pancreas, kidneys, salivary glands, lung, liver, lymph nodes, biliary tract and orbits of the eyes. The disease is recognized by a characteristic pattern of pathological, serological or clinical features shared amongst the organs system that are involved. In some cases, IgG4-RD can mimic malignant, infectious or inflammatory disorders and therefore distinguishing the disease is crucial. Continue reading “Classification Criteria for IgG4-Related Disease”

Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes is a heterogeneous, complex metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose concentrations secondary to either resistance to the action of insulin, insufficient insulin secretion, or both. The most common classifications include Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and other specific types. Continue reading “Classification of Diabetes Mellitus”

Classification Criteria for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE)

No universally recognized classification criteria currently exist for discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), which has led to problematic heterogeneity in observational and interventional clinical studies across the field. Continue reading “Classification Criteria for Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE)”

Killip-Kimball Classification for Acute Myocardial Infarction

The classification or index of heart failure severity in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was proposed by Killip and Kimball aiming at assessing the risk of in-hospital death and the potential benefit of specific management of care provided in Coronary Care Units (CCU). Continue reading “Killip-Kimball Classification for Acute Myocardial Infarction”

Differences Between Diagnostic and Classification Criteria

The majority of rheumatic diseases are multisystem disorders with poorly understood etiology; they tend to be heterogeneous in their presentation, course, and outcome and do not have a single clinical, laboratory, pathologic, or radiologic feature that could serve as a “gold standard” in support of diagnosis and/or classification. Continue reading “Differences Between Diagnostic and Classification Criteria”

The Gell-Coombs Classification of Hypersensitivity Reactions

The original Gell and Coomb’s classification categorizes hypersensitivity reactions into four subtypes according to the type of immune response and the effector mechanism responsible for cell and tissue injury: type I, immediate or IgE mediated; type II, cytotoxic or IgG/IgM mediated; type III, IgG/IgM immune complex mediated; and type IV, delayed-type hypersensitivity or T-cell mediated. Continue reading “The Gell-Coombs Classification of Hypersensitivity Reactions”

Classification of Caustic-Induced Gastrointestinal Injuries

Caustic substances injure tissue by means of a chemical reaction on direct physical contact. Often thought of as acids or bases, caustics broadly include desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The term “corrosive” is often used interchangeably with “caustic,” but corrosion implies a mechanical degradation, which does not always apply to caustics. Continue reading “Classification of Caustic-Induced Gastrointestinal Injuries”

Classification of Ulcer-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

The Forrest classification is a widely used classification of ulcer-related upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It was initially developed to unify the description of ulcer bleeding for better communication amongst endoscopists. However, the Forrest Classification is now used as a tool to identify patients who are at an increased risk for bleeding, rebleeding and mortality. Continue reading “Classification of Ulcer-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding”

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