Diabetes is a heterogeneous, complex metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose concentrations secondary to either resistance to the action of insulin, insufficient insulin secretion, or both. The most common classifications include Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and other specific types.
Classification of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes can be classified into the following general categories:
- Type 1 diabetes (due to autoimmune β-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency, including latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood)
- Type 2 diabetes (due to a progressive loss of adequate β-cell insulin secretion frequently on the background of insulin resistance)
- Specific types of diabetes due to other causes, e.g., monogenic diabetes syndromes (such as neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young), diseases of the exocrine pancreas (such as cystic fibrosis and pancreatitis), and drug- or chemical-induced diabetes (such as with glucocorticoid use, in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, or after organ transplantation)
- Gestational diabetes mellitus (diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that was not clearly overt diabetes prior to gestation)
Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are heterogeneous diseases in which clinical presentation and disease progression may vary considerably. Classification is important for determining therapy, but some individuals cannot be clearly classified as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes at the time of diagnosis. Children with type 1 diabetes typically present with the hallmark symptoms of polyuria/polydipsia, and approximately one-third present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The onset of type 1 diabetes may be more variable in adults; they may not present with the classic symptoms seen in children and may experience temporary remission from the need for insulin. Occasionally, patients with type 2 diabetes may present with DKA. The classification of diabetes type is not always straightforward at presentation and that misdiagnosis is common (e.g., adults with type 1 diabetes misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes; individuals with maturity-onset diabetes of the young [MODY] misdiagnosed as having type 1 diabetes, etc.). Although difficulties in distinguishing diabetes type may occur in all age-groups at onset, the diagnosis becomes more obvious over time in people with β-cell deficiency.
In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, various genetic and environmental factors can result in the progressive loss of β-cell mass and/or function that manifests clinically as hyperglycemia. Once hyperglycemia occurs, patients with all forms of diabetes are at risk for developing the same chronic complications, although rates of progression may differ.
There is debate as to whether slowly progressive autoimmune diabetes with an adult onset should be termed latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) or type 1 diabetes. The clinical priority is awareness that slow autoimmune β-cell destruction can occur in adults leading to a long duration of marginal insulin secretory capacity. For the purpose of this classification, all forms of diabetes mediated by autoimmune β-cell destruction are included under the rubric of type 1 diabetes. Use of the term LADA is common and acceptable in clinical practice and has the practical impact of heightening awareness of a population of adults likely to develop overt autoimmune β-cell destruction, thus accelerating insulin initiation prior to deterioration of glucose control or development of DKA.
- Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2021. American Diabetes Association Diabetes Care Jan 2021, 44 (Supplement 1) S15-S33 [Medline]
- Hope SV, Wienand-Barnett S, Shepherd M, King SM, Fox C, Khunti K, Oram RA, Knight BA, Hattersley AT, Jones AG, Shields BM. Practical Classification Guidelines for Diabetes in patients treated with insulin: a cross-sectional study of the accuracy of diabetes diagnosis. Br J Gen Pract. 2016 May;66(646):e315-22. [Medline]
Created Jan 05, 2021.