Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also called extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a respiratory syndrome involving the lung parenchyma and specifically the alveoli, terminal bronchioli, and alveolar interstitium, due to a delayed allergic reaction. Such reaction is secondary to a repeated and prolonged inhalation of different types of organic dusts or other substances to which the patient is sensitized and hyper responsive, primarily consisting of organic dusts of animal or vegetable origin, more rarely from chemicals. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis”
The modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale is recommended for conducting assessments of dyspnea and disability and functions as an indicator of exacerbation. Continue reading “Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) Dyspnea Scale”
In 2000, IPF was defined as a specific form of chronic, progressive, fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause, occurring primarily in older adults and limited to the lungs. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the histopathological pattern of IPF. IPF is characterized by progressive worsening of dyspnea and lung function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)”
The Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) is an algorithm that can be used to classify lung nodules in patients with significant smoking histories.
Continue reading “Lung Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS)”
The Berlin definition, proposed in 2012, breaks with tradition by establishing three risk strata that are based on the degree of hypoxemia as assessed at a minimum positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).
Continue reading “Berlin Definition of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)”
Primary, secondary, and tertiary preventive measures may reduce the incidence and severity of sensitizer-induced asthma.
Continue reading “Prevention of Sensitizer-Induced Occupational Asthma”
Irritant-induced occupational asthma is a term used to describe occupational asthma that occurs from exposure to agents considered to be airway irritants, in the absence of sensitization.
Continue reading “Criteria for the Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS)”
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by variable narrowing of the airways and symptoms of intermittent dyspnea, wheezing, and nighttime or early-morning coughing.
Continue reading “Criteria for the Diagnosis of Asthma”
The difficult-to-control asthma can be defined as that which is inadequately or poorly controlled despite an appropriate therapeutic strategy that is adjusted to clinical severity.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Difficult-to-Control Asthma”
The BODE is a multidimensional index designed to assess clinical risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It combines four important variables into a single score: (B) body mass index; (O) airflow obstruction measured by the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1); (D) dyspnoea measured by the modified Medical Research Council (MRC) scale; and (E) exercise capacity measured by the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Each component is graded and a score out of 10 is obtained, with higher scores indicating greater risk. The BODE index reflects the impact of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary factors on prognosis and survival in COPD.
Continue reading “Scoring the BODE Index”