The Berlin definition, proposed in 2012, breaks with tradition by establishing three risk strata that are based on the degree of hypoxemia as assessed at a minimum positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Continue reading →
The Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) staging system for lung cancer is an internationally accepted system used to characterize the extent of disease. The TNM system combines features of the tumor into disease stage groups that correlate with survival and are linked to recommendations for treatment. Continue reading →
Exclusion of other known causes of ILD such as certain drug toxicities, environmental exposures, and connective tissue diseases
Abnormal pulmonary function studies that include evidence of restriction (reduced VC, often with an increased FEV1/FVC ratio) and impaired gas exchange [increased P(A–a)O2, decreased PaO2 with rest or exercise or decreased DLCO]
Bibasilar reticular abnormalities with minimal ground glass opacities on HRCT scans
Transbronchial lung biopsy or BAL showing no features to support an alternative diagnosis
The European Respiratory Society (ERS) diagnostic criteria for COPD include the following symptoms: coughing, sputum production and/or dyspnoea, as well as a history of exposure to risk factors for COPD. The diagnosis is confirmed by a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 in spirometry, as sign of the airflow limitation that is not fully reversible.