Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited cause of kidney disease. Enlarging cysts within the kidneys are the clinical hallmark of the disease. Renal manifestations include varying degrees of kidney injury, urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and hematuria. Extrarenal manifestations can include pain, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, hepatic cysts, intracranial aneurysm, diverticulosis, and abdominal and inguinal hernias. Continue reading
The Banff classification represented the first attempt to formulate an international, consensus based and structured classification system for the diagnosis and categorization of renal allograft biopsy pathology with a particular focus on the development of the morphological criteria for the diagnosis and classification of rejection. Continue reading
Recently developed consensus functional definitions on the basis of specific changes in the serum creatinine concentration and urine volume now complement anatomical approaches to diagnosis.
The autosomal recessive inherited primary hyperoxalurias types I, II and III are caused by defects in glyoxylate metabolism that lead to the endogenous overproduction of oxalate.
In 2004, the ADQI group and representatives from three nephrology societies established the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN). Its intentions are to facilitate international, interdisciplinary and intersocietal collaborations and to ensure progress in the field of AKI, including the development of uniform standards for the definition and classification of AKI. As part of this process, the RIFLE nomenclature and classification was modified to a staging/classification system differentiating between AKI stage I, II and III. In addition, a 48-hour time window for the diagnosis of AKI was introduced to ensure that the process was acute.
Bartter’s syndrome is a rare disease that most often presents in the neonatal period or early childhood with polyuria, polydipsia, salt craving, and growth retardation. Blood pressure is normal or low. Metabolic abnormalities include hypokalemia, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, decreased urinary concentrating and diluting ability, hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis, mild hypomagnesemia, and increased urinary prostaglandin excretion.
Indications of dialysis in acute renal failure (ARF)
- Severe fluid overload
- Refractory hypertension
- Uncontrollable hyperkalemia
- Nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, gastritis with hemorrhage
- Lethargy, malaise, somnolence, stupor, coma, delirium, asterixis, tremor, seizures,
- Pericarditis (risk of hemorrhage or tamponade)
- bleeding diathesis (epistaxis, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, etc.)
- Severe metabolic acidosis
- Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) > 70 – 100 mg/dl Continue reading
Guidelines for urinary indices whereby established Acute Renal Failure (ARF) can be distinguished from renal vasoconstriction with intact tubular function (prerenal azotemia).
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is defined as the impairment of renal function and is measured as either a 25% increase in serum creatinine (SCr) from baseline or 0.5 mg/dL (44 umol/L) increase in absolute value, within 48-72 hours of intravenous contrast administration. Continue reading
RIFLE, a newly developed international consensus classification for acute kidney injury, defines three grades of severity