Tumor markers are playing an increasingly important role in cancer detection and management. These laboratory-based tests are potentially useful in screening for early malignancy, aiding cancer diagnosis, determining prognosis, surveillance following curative surgery for cancer, up front predicting drug response or resistance, and monitoring therapy in advanced disease.
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The tumor lysis syndrome is the most common disease-related emergency encountered by physicians caring for children or adults with hematologic cancers. This syndrome occurs when tumor cells release their contents into the bloodstream, either spontaneously or in response to therapy, leading to the characteristic findings of hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. These electrolyte and metabolic disturbances can progress to clinical toxic effects, including renal insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death due to multiorgan failure.
Continue reading “Definitions of Laboratory and Clinical Tumor Lysis Syndrome”
Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) include percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with or without stenting. Primary indications are treatment of angina pectoris (stable or unstable), myocardial ischemia, and acute MI (particularly in patients with developing or established cardiogenic shock).
Continue reading “Clinical Indications and Contraindications to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)”
Acute nosocomial pneumonia is broadly defined as pneumonia characterized by a new and persistent infiltrate (radiographically present for greater than 48 hours) PLUS one of the following:
Continue reading “Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Hospital-Acquired (or Nosocomial) Pneumonia (HAP)”
The levels in this new diabetic retinopathy disease severity scale consist of five scales with increasing risks of retinopathy.
Continue reading “International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema Disease Severity Scales”