Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

A diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) requires the patient’s plasma glucose concentration to be above 250 mg per dL (although it usually is much higher), the pH level to be less than 7.30, and the bicarbonate level to be 18 mEq per L or less. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy (DSPN)

The Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy (DSPN) is a symmetrical, length-dependent sensorimotor polyneuropathy attributable to metabolic and microvessel alterations as a result of chronic hyperglycemia exposure (diabetes) and cardiovascular risk covariates.
Continue reading

International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema Disease Severity Scales

The levels in this new diabetic retinopathy disease severity scale consist of five scales with increasing risks of retinopathy.
Continue reading