A diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) requires the patient’s plasma glucose concentration to be above 250 mg per dL (although it usually is much higher), the pH level to be less than 7.30, and the bicarbonate level to be 18 mEq per L or less. Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State”
Foot ulcerations are among the most complex and heterogeneous complications in patients with diabetes. Skin ulcers need to be managed in different ways dependent on their etiology and pathogenesis.
The 10 Saint Elian Wound Score System (SEWSS) categories is helpful in guiding treatment decisions based on severity subcategories.
Continue reading “Saint Elian Wound Score System for Diabetic Foot Ulcers”
The Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy (DSPN) is a symmetrical, length-dependent sensorimotor polyneuropathy attributable to metabolic and microvessel alterations as a result of chronic hyperglycemia exposure (diabetes) and cardiovascular risk covariates.
Continue reading “Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy (DSPN)”
The levels in this new diabetic retinopathy disease severity scale consist of five scales with increasing risks of retinopathy.
Continue reading “International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema Disease Severity Scales”
The well-established widely used Wagner wound classification system and the new University of Texas (UT) diabetic wound classification system both provide descriptions of ulcers to varying degrees. Both wound classification systems are easy to use among health care providers, and both can provide a guide to planning treatment strategies. Continue reading “Wagner and the University of Texas Wound Classification Systems of Diabetic Foot Ulcers”