Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

A diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) requires the patient’s plasma glucose concentration to be above 250 mg per dL (although it usually is much higher), the pH level to be less than 7.30, and the bicarbonate level to be 18 mEq per L or less. Continue reading

Saint Elian Wound Score System for Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Foot ulcerations are among the most complex and heterogeneous complications in patients with diabetes. Skin ulcers need to be managed in different ways dependent on their etiology and pathogenesis.

The 10 Saint Elian Wound Score System (SEWSS) categories is helpful in guiding treatment decisions based on severity subcategories.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy (DSPN)

The Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy (DSPN) is a symmetrical, length-dependent sensorimotor polyneuropathy attributable to metabolic and microvessel alterations as a result of chronic hyperglycemia exposure (diabetes) and cardiovascular risk covariates.
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International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema Disease Severity Scales

The levels in this new diabetic retinopathy disease severity scale consist of five scales with increasing risks of retinopathy.
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Wagner and the University of Texas Wound Classification Systems of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Wagner Classification of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Grade 0: No ulcer in a high risk foot.

Grade 1: Superficial ulcer involving the full skin thickness but not underlying tissues.

Grade 2: Deep ulcer, penetrating down to ligaments and muscle, but no bone involvement or abscess formation.

Grade 3: Deep ulcer with cellulitis or abscess formation, often with osteomyelitis.

Grade 4: Localized gangrene.

Grade 5: Extensive gangrene involving the whole foot.

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